Neural Control of Growth Hormone Secretion in Aged Humans
It is widely accepted that growth hormone (GH) secretion undergoes an age-related decrease in both animals and humans (Dieguez et al. 1988 Müller and Nisticò 1989). Twenty-four-hour integrated GH concentrations have been shown to be lower in older versus younger subjects (Zadik et al. 1985). More recently, the study of the 24-h GH profile with frequent sampling techniques demonstrated that both day-time and night-time mean pulse amplitude and duration but not pulse frequency are reduced in aged humans (Vermeulen 1987; Van Coervorden et al. 1991). On the contrary, other authors (Iranmanesh et al. 1991) found significant reductions in GH secretory burst frequency and half-life but not in GH secretory burst half duration, amplitude or mass. Interestingly, though both slow wave sleep and nocturnal GH secretion are drastically reduced in the elderly, the small GH rises during sleep are nevertheless temporally related to slow wave stages (Van Coervorden et al. 1991).
KeywordsDementia Cortisol Arginine Cholin Catecholamine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bando H, Zhang C, Takada y, yamasaki R, Saito S (1991) Impaired secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone and IGF-I in elderly men. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 124:31–36.Google Scholar
- Dieguez C, Page MD, Scanlon MF (1988) Growth hormone neuroregulation and its alterations in disease states. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 28:109–121.Google Scholar
- Ghigo E, Goffi S, Arvat E, Nicolosi M, Procopio M, Bellone J, Imperiale E, Mazza E, Baracchi G, Camanni F (1990a) Pyridostigmine partially restores the GH responsiveness to GHRH in normal aging. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 123:169–174.Google Scholar
- Ghigo E, Goffi S, Nicolosi M, Arvat E, Bellone J, Procopio M, Valente F, Mazza E, Ghigo MC, Camanni F (1990b) Growth hormone (GH) responsiveness to combined administration of arginine and GH-releasing hormone does not vary with age in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 71:1481–1485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghigo E, Arvat E, Goffi S, Bellone J, Valente F, Procopio M, Ghigo MC, Camanni F (1991a) Repetitive GHRH and arginine administration to explore the maximal secretory capacity of somatotroph cells during lifespan. Exp Clin Endocrinol (Life Sci Adv) 10:191–198.Google Scholar
- Ghigo E, Arvat E, Valente F, Nicolosi M, Boffano GM, Procopio M, Bellone J, Maccario M, Mazza F, Camanni F (1991b) Arginine reinstates the somatotrope responsiveness to intermittent Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone administration in normal adults. Neuroendocrinology 54:291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Giusti M, Giovale M, Grossman A, Marini G, Drago T, Uggias B, Pompei A, Sessarego P, Delitala G (1992) Opioid analogue met-enkephalin does not potentiate GH release after GHRH in elderly men. J Endocrinol Invest 15[Suppl 4]:119.Google Scholar
- Locatelli V, Cella SG, Cermenati P, Panzeri G, Sellan R, Muller EE (1989) Defective growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging mammals: contribution of central and peripheral inhibitory influences and of GH-releasing hormone. In: Valenti G (ed) Psychoneuroendocrinology of aging: basic and clinical aspects. Liviana, Padova, pp 61–71 (Fidia research series, vol 16)Google Scholar
- Massara F, Ghigo E, Demislis K, Tangolo D, Mazza E, Locatelli V, Müller EE, Molinatti GM, Camanni F (1986) Cholinergic involvement in the growth hormone releasing hormone-induced growth hormone release: studies in normal and acromegalic subjects. Neuro-endocrinology 43:670–675.Google Scholar
- Müller EE, Nisticò G (1989) Neurotransmitter regulation of the anterior pituitary. In: Müller EE, Nisticò G (eds) Brain messengers and the pituitary. Academic, San Diego, pp 404–537.Google Scholar
- Panzeri G, Torsello A, Cella SG, Muller EE, Locatelli V (1990) Age-related modulatory activity by a cholinergic agonist on the GH response to GHRH in the rat. PSEMB 193:301.Google Scholar
- Van Coevorden A, Mockel J, Laurent E (1991) Neuroendocrine rhythms and sleep in aging men. Am J Physiol 260:251–261.Google Scholar