Micronucleus Assays

  • W.-U. Müller
  • C. Streffer
Part of the Advances in Mutagenesis Research book series (MUTAGENESIS, volume 5)


Small, round-shaped structures that stained like the cell nucleus were observed in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes more than a century ago (Neumann 1869, p. 78; Howell 1891; for a review of the early literature see Jolly 1907, in particular pp. 207–224). These structures, called “fragment of nuclear material” by Howell or “corpuscules intraglobulaires” in the termination of Jolly, are known to the hematologist as “Howell-Jolly bodies”.


Chromosome Aberration Micronucleus Test Micronucleus Assay Chinese Hamster Cell Micronucleus Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaron CS (1989) Evaluation of drug candidates in a battery of short-term genetic toxicology assays: overview. Mutat Res 223: 105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaron CS, Sorg R, Zimmer D (1989) The mouse bone marrow micronucleus test: evaluation of 21 drug candidates. Mutat Res 223: 129–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abe T, Isemura T, Kikuchi Y (1984) Micronuclei in human bone-marrow cells: evaluation of the micronucleus test using human leukemia patients treated with antileukemic agents. Mutat Res 130: 113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams FH, Norman A, Mello RS, Bass D (1977) Effect of radiation and contrast media on chromosomes. Radiology 124: 823–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adler I-D (1983) New approaches to mutagenicity studies in animals for carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. II. Clastogenic effects determined in transplacentally treated mouse embryos. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 3: 321–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Adler I-D, Kliesch U, van Hummelen P, Kirsch-Volders M (1991) Mouse micronucleus tests with known and suspect spindle poisons: results from two laboratories. Mutagenesis 6: 47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aeschbacher HU (1986) Rates of micronuclei induction in different mouse strains. Mutat Res 164: 109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aeschbacher HU, Gottwick D, Meier H, Poot AW (1979) Mutagen-sensitive strain of mice. Mutat Res 59: 301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aeschbacher HU, Meier H, Ruch E, Wurzner HP (1984) Investigation of coffee in sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 22: 803–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aeschbacher HU, Meier H, Jaccaud E (1986) The effect of caffeine in the in vivo SCE and micronucleus mutagenicity tests. Mutat Res 174: 53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Aghamohammadi SZ, Henderson L, Cole RJ (1984) The human lymphocyte micronucleus assay. Response of cord blood lymphocytes to gamma-irradiation and bleomycin. Mutat Res 130: 395–401Google Scholar
  12. Aghamohammadi SZ, Goodhead DT, Savage JR (1989) Production of chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, and sister-chromatid exchanges by 24-keV epithermal neutrons in human GO lymphocytes. Mutat Res 211: 225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Alati T, Eckl P, Jirtle RL (1989) An in vitro micronucleus assay for determining the radiosensitivity of hepatocytes. Radiat Res 119: 562–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Albanese R (1987) The cytonucleus test in the rat: a combined metaphase and micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 182: 309–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Albanese R, Middleton BJ (1987) The assessment of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rat bone marrow. Technical and statistical considerations. Mutat Res 182: 323–332Google Scholar
  16. Almassy Z, Kanyar B, Köteles GJ (1986) Frequency of micronuclei in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 49: 719 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  17. Almassy Z, Krepinsky AB, Bianco A, Köteles GJ (1987) The present state and perspectives of micronucleus assay in radiation protection. A review. Appl Radiat Isotop 38:241–249Google Scholar
  18. Al-Sabti K (1986a) Comparative micronucleated erythrocyte cell induction in three cyprinids by five carcinogenic-mutagenic chemicals. Cytobios 47: 147–54Google Scholar
  19. Al-Sabti K (1986b) Clastogenic effects of five carcinogenic-mutagenic chemicals on the cells of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Comp Biochem Physiol C 85: 5–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Amphlett GE, Delow GF (1984) Statistical analysis of the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 128: 161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ankina MA, Mikhailova GF (1991) Study of the dose-response relationship with a reference to the occurrence of binuclear cells with micronuclei in gamma-irradiated lymphocyte culture. Radiobiologiya 31: 71–76 (Russian with English abstr)Google Scholar
  22. Antoccia A, Degrassi F, Battistoni A, Ciliutti P, Tanzarella C (1991) In vitro micronucleus test with kinetochore staining: evaluation of test performance. Mutagenesis 6: 319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Arlett CF, Priestley A (1985) An assessment of the radiosensitivity of ataxia-telangiectasia hetcrozygotes. In: Ataxia-telangiectasia: genetics, neuropathology, and immunology of a degenerative disease of childhood. Liss, New York; Kroc Found Ser 19: 101–109Google Scholar
  24. Arlett CF, Ashby J, Fielder RJ, Scott D (1989) Micronuclei: origins, applications and methodologies. Mutagenesis 4: 483–486 (a meeting report)Google Scholar
  25. Arora OP, Shah VC, Rao SRV (1969) Studies on micronuclei induced by mitomycin-C in the root cells of Vicia faba. Exp Cell Res 56: 443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ashby J (1982) Screening chemicals for mutagenicity: practices and pitfalls. In: Heddle JA (ed) Mutagenicity: new horizons in genetic toxicology. Academic Press, New York, pp 2–32Google Scholar
  27. Ashby J (1985) Genetic toxicology in industry: perspectives and initiatives. Food Chem Toxicol 23:43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ashby J (1986) The prospects for a simplified and internationally harmonized approach to the detection of possible human carcinogens and mutagens. Mutagenesis 1:3–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ashby J, Mohammed R (1986) Slide preparation and sampling as a major source of variability in the mouse micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 164:217–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ashby J, Tinwell H (1990) The serial dosing rodent bone-marrow micronucleus assay test protocol: context, purpose and design of the collaborative study. Mutat Res 234: 111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ashby J, Tinwell H, Gulati D, Heddle JA (1990) Overview of the study in relation to protocol design for the rodent bone-marrow micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 234: 223–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ashwood-Smith MJ, Friedmann GB (1979) Lethal and chromosomal effects of freezing, thawing, storage time, and X-irradiation on mammalian cells preserved at —196°C in dimethylsulfoxide. Cryobiology 16: 132–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ashwood-Smith MJ, Grant E (1977) Genetic stability in cellular systems stored in the frozen state. In: The freezing of mammalian embryos. CIBA Foundation Symposium 52, New Series. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 251–272Google Scholar
  34. Ashwood-Smith MJ, Grant EL, Heddle JA, Friedman GB (1977) Chromosome damage in Chinese hamster cells sensitized to near-ultraviolet light by psoralen and angelicin. Mutat Res 43: 377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Au WW, Ward JB Jr, Ramanujam VM, Harper BL, Moslen MT, Legator MS (1988) Genotoxic effects of a sub-acute low-level inhalation exposure to a mixture of carcinogenic chemicals. Mutat Res 203: 103–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Au WW, Walker DM, Ward JB Jr, Whorton E, Legator MS, Singh V (1991) Factors contributing to chromosome damage in lymphocytes of cigarette smokers. Mutat Res 260: 137–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Balansky RM, Blagoeva PM (1989) Tobacco smoke-induced clastogenicity in mouse fetuses and in newborn mice. Mutat Res 223: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Balansky RM, Blagoeva PM, Mircheva ZI (1987) Investigation of the mutagenic activity of tobacco smoke. Mutat Res 188: 13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Balansky RM, Blagoeva PM, Mircheva ZI (1988) The mutagenic and clastogenic activity of tobacco smoke. Mutat Res 208: 237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Balasem AN, Ali ASK (1991) Establishment of dose-response relationships between doses of CS-137 gamma-rays and frequencies of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutat Res 259: 133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Banduhn N, Obe G (1985) Mutagenicity of methyl 2-benzimidazole-carbamate, diethylstilbestrol and estradiol: structural chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, C-mitosis, polyploidies and micronuclei. Mutat Res 156: 199–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Barale R, Migliore L, Zucconi D, Ciranni R, Casini D, Carducci A, Loprieno N (1987) Experimental model for evaluating the effects of genetic and exogenous factors on transplacental mutagenesis. Mutagenesis 2: 173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Baraona E, Guerra M, Lieber CS (1981) Cytogenetic damage of bone marrow cells produced by chronic alcohol consumption. Life Sci 29: 1797–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Barbason H, Fridman-Manduzio A, Betz EH (1975) Long term effects of a single dose of dimethylnitrosamine on the rat liver. Z Krebsforsch 84: 135–142Google Scholar
  45. Bauchinger M (1984) Cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as a dosimetry system. In: Eisert WG, Mendelsohn ML (eds) Biological dosimetry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 15–24Google Scholar
  46. Bauchinger M, Schmid E, Braselmann H (1986) Cell survival and radiation induced chromosome aberrations, II. Experimental findings in human lymphocytes analysed in first and second post-irradiation metaphases. Radiat Environ Biophys 25: 253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bauknecht T, Vogel W, Bayer U, Wild D (1977) Comparative in vivo mutagenicity testing by SCE and micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow. Hum Genet 35: 299–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Baumgartner AP, Chrisman CL (1981) Cytogenetic analysis of ovulated mouse oocytes following hyperthermic stress during meiotic maturation. Exp Cell Res 132: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Becker P, Scherthan H, Zankl H (1990) Use of a centromere-specific DNA probe (p82H) in nonisotopic in situ hybridization for classification of micronuclei. Genes Chromosome Cancer 2: 59–62Google Scholar
  50. Beek B, Jacky PB, Sutherland GR (1983) Heritable fragile sites and micronucleus formation. Ann Genet 26: 5–9Google Scholar
  51. Benavente R, Schmidt-Zachmann MS, Hugle-Dorr B, Reimer G, Rose KM, Scheer U (1988) Identification and definition of nucleolus-related fibrillar bodies in micronucleated cells. Exp Cell Res 178: 518–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Bender MA, Griggs HG, Bedford JS (1974) Mechanisms of chromosomal aberration production. III. Chemicals and ionizing radiation. Mutat Res 23: 197–212Google Scholar
  53. Bender MA, Awa AA, Brooks AL, Evans HJ, Groer PG, Littlefield LG, Pereira C, Preston RJ, Wachholz BW (1988) Current status of cytogenetic procedures to detect and quantify previous exposures to radiation. Mutat Res 196: 103–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Bertsche U (1985) Micronucleus induction in mammalian cell cultures treated with ionizing radiations. Radiat Environ Biophys 24: 27–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bettega D, Bombana M, Pelucchi T, Poli A, Tallone Lombardi L, Fuhrman Conti AM (1980) Multinucleate cells and micronucleus formation in cultured human cells exposed to 12 MeV protons and gamma-rays. Int J Radiat Biol 37: 1–9Google Scholar
  56. Bielfeld V, Weichenthal M, Roser M, Breitbart E, Berger J, Seemanova E, Rüdiger HW (1989) Ultraviolet-induced chromosomal instability in cultured fibroblasts of heterozygote carriers for Xeroderma pigmentosum. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 43: 219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bilbao A, Prosser JS, Edwards AA, Moody JC, Lloyd DC (1989) The induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes by in vitro irradiation with alpha particles from plutonium-239. Int J Radiat Biol 56: 287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Blakey DH, Duncan AM, Wargovich MJ, Goldberg MT, Bruce WR, Heddle JA (1985) Detection of nuclear anomalies in the colonic epithelium of the mouse. Cancer Res 45: 242–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Boll I, Koppe M, Schaaf J, Trautmann J (1956) Quantitative und qualitative Veränderungen an Röntgenbestrahlten Knochenmarkkulturen. Strahlentherapie 100: 445–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Boller K, Schmid W (1970) Chemische Mutagenese beim Säuger. Das Knochenmark des Chinesischen Hamsters als in vivo Testsystem. Hämatologische Befunde nach Behandlung mit Trenimon. Humangenetik 11: 35–54Google Scholar
  61. Bonatti S, Simi L, Abbondandolo A (1985) The effect of thymidine on the induction of micronuclei by alkylating agents in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Mutat Res 150: 347–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Borràs M (1986) Formol-saline as a cell-conserving medium in the micronucleus test. Stain Technol 61: 59–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Boycs BG, Koval JJ (1985) A cautionary note on the use of BUdR when determining micronucleus frequencies. Int J Radiat Biol 47: 341–342Google Scholar
  64. Braithwaite I, Ashby J (1988) A non-invasive micronucleus assay in the rat liver. Mutat Res 203: 23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Brenneke H (1937) Strahlenschädigung von Mäuse-und Rattensperma beobachtet an der Frühentwicklung der Eier. Strahlentherapie 60: 214–238Google Scholar
  66. Brenner SL, Liaw L-H, Berns MW (1980) Laser microirradiation of kinetochores in mitotic PtK2 cells: chromatid separation and micronucleus formation. Cell Biophys 2: 139–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Brock WA, Williams M (1985) Kinetics of micronucleus expression in synchronized irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cell Tissue Kinet 18: 247–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Brock WA, Maor MH, Peters LJ (1985) Predictors of tumor response to radiotherapy. Radiat Res (Suppl) 8: S290–296Google Scholar
  69. Brodin U (1989) Statistical analysis of the micronucleus test — a modelling approach. Mutat Res 211: 259–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Brögger A, Magmar L, Hansteen I-L, Heim S, Högstedt B, Knudsen L, Lambert B, Linnainmaa K, Mitelman F, Nordenson I, Reuterwall C, Salomaa S, Skerfving S, Sorsa M (1990) An inter-Nordic prospective study on cytogenetic endpoints and cancer risk. Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 45: 85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Brookes P, de Serres FJ (1981) Overview of assay system performance. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 96–111Google Scholar
  72. Brooks AL, Newton GJ, Shyr LJ, Seiler FA, Scott BR (1990) The combined effects of alpha particles and X-rays on cell killing and micronuclei induction in lung epithelial cells. Int J Radiat Biol 58: 799–811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Bruce WR, Heddle JA (1979) The mutagenic activity of 61 agents as determined by the micronucleus, Salmonella, and sperm abnormality assays. Can J Genet Cytol 21: 319–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Callisen H, Norman A, Pincu M (1984) Computer scoring of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. In: Eisert WG, Mendelsohn ML (eds) Biological dosimetry. Cytometric approaches to mammalian systems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 171–179Google Scholar
  75. Callisen HH, Pincu M, Norman A (1986) Feasibility of automating the micronucleus assay. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 8: 219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Carmichael NG, Backhouse BL, Winder C, Lewis PD (1982) Teratogenicity, toxicity and perinatal effects of cadmium. Hum Toxicol 1: 159–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Carrano AV, Heddle JA (1973) The fate of chromosome aberrations. J Theor Biol 38: 289–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Chai LS, Schumer JM, Sandberg AA (1985) Effect of mitochondrial inhibitors on metaphase-telophase progression and nuclear membrane formation in Chinese hamster cells. Cell Tissue Kinet 18: 13–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Chakrabarti A, Chakrabarti S (1987) High yield of micronuclei and micronuclei premature chromosome condensation in a mouse tumor cell line cultured in vivo with prearrested mitotic metaphases. Neoplasma 34: 557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Chakrabarti RN, Dutta K (1988) Micronuclei test in routine smears from uterine cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 9: 370–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Chaubey RC, Kavi BR, Chauhan PS, Sundaram K (1977) Evaluation of the effect of ethanol on the frequency of micronuclei in the bone marrow of Swiss mice. Mutat Res 43: 441–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Chaubey RC, George KP, Sundaram K (1978) X-ray-induced micronuclei in the bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. Int J Radiat Biol 33: 507–510Google Scholar
  83. Chieco-Bianchi L, Saggioro D, Del-Mistro A, Montaldo A, Majone F, Levis AG (1988) Chromosome damage induced in cord blood T-lymphocytes infected in vitro by HTLV-I. Leukemia 2(12):2235–2328 (Suppl)Google Scholar
  84. Chrisman CL, Baumgartner AP (1980) Micronuclei in bone-marrow cells of mice subjected to hyperthermia. Mutat Res 77: 95–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ciranni R, Barale R, Marrazzini A, Loprieno N (1988a) Benzene and the genotoxicity of its metabolites. I. Transplacental activity in mouse fetuses and in their dams. Mutat Res 208: 61–67Google Scholar
  86. Ciranni R, Barale R, Ghelardini G, Loprieno N (1988b) Benzene and the genotoxicity of its metabolites. II. The effect of the route of administration on the micronuclei and bone marrow depression in mouse bone marrow cells. Mutat Res 209: 23–28Google Scholar
  87. Cliet I, Fournier E, Melcion C, Cordier A (1989) In vivo micronucleus test using mouse hepatocytes. Mutat Res 216: 321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Cole RJ, Taylor NA, Cole J, Arlett CF (1979) Transplacental effects of chemical mutagens detected by the micronucleus test. Nature 277: 317–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Cole RJ, Taylor N, Cole J, Arlett CF (1981) Short-term tests for transplacentally active carcinogens. I. Micronucleus formation in fetal and maternal mouse erythroblasts. Mutat Res 80: 141–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (1986) Sex difference in the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 172: 151–163Google Scholar
  91. Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (1988) Strain difference in the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 204: 307–316Google Scholar
  92. Cornforth MN, Goodwin EH (1991) Transmission of radiation-induced acentric chromosomal fragments to micronuclei in normal human fibroblasts. Radiat Res 126:210–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Cortés F, Mateos S, Escalza P (1986) Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Mutat Res 171: 139–143Google Scholar
  94. Coss RA, Dewey WC (1988) Heat sensitization of G1 and S phase cells by procaine HCI. II: Toxicity and probability of dividing following treatment. Int J Hyperthermia 4: 687–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Countryman PI, Heddle JA (1976) The production of micronuclei from chromosome aberrations in irradiated cultures of human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 41: 321–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Countryman PI, Heddle JA, Crawford E (1977) The repair of X-ray-induced chromosomal damage in trisomy 21 and normal diploid lymphocytes. Cancer Res 37: 52–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Crebelli R, Fuselli S, Meneguz A, Aquilina G, Conti L, Leopardi P, Zijno A, Baris F, Carere A (1988) In vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies with airborne particulate extracts. Mutat Res 204:565–575Google Scholar
  98. Crosby AR (1957) Nucleolar activity of lagging chromosomes in wheat. Am J Bot 44: 813–822Google Scholar
  99. Cui YQ, Dong ZW, Liu SB, Zhang SC, Wang Y, Ji XY (1990) Assessment of the mutagenic effect of maternal factors on human chorionic villi by micronucleus test. In: Mendelsohn ML, Albertini RJ (eds) Mutation and the environment, Part B: Metabolism, testing methods, and chromosomes. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 340B. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 217–222Google Scholar
  100. Das BC, Sharma T (1987) The fate of X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocyte culture. Mutat Res 176: 93–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Das NK (1962) Synthetic capacities of chromosome fragments correlated with their ability to maintain nucleolar material. J Cell Biol 15: 121–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Das RK, Kar RN (1980) Sodium citrate as a substitute for fetal calf serum in the micronucleus test. Stain Technol 55: 43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Das RK, Roy B (1988) A simplified method for micronucleus preparation from hepatic cells. Stain Technol 63: 71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Dash S, Panda KK, Panda BB (1988) Biomonitoring of low levels of mercurial derivatives in water and soil by Allium micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 203: 11–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Degrassi F, Rizzoni M (1982) Micronucleus test in Vicia faba root tips to detect mutagen damage in fresh-water pollution. Mutat Res 97: 19–33Google Scholar
  106. Degrassi F, Tanzarella C (1988) Immunofluorescent staining of kinetochores in micronuclei: a new assay for the detection of aneuploidy. Mutat Res 203: 339–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Dela-Rosa AM, Banzon RB (1989) The effect of gamma-radiation on smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays. Mutat Res 223: 303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Diehl I, Bianchi M (1980) Induction of micronuclei after irradiation with a 600-MV neutron beam — effects from 1 to 80 cGy. Br J Radiol 53: 1103Google Scholar
  109. Diehl-Marshall I, Bianchi M (1981) Induction of micronuclei in bean roots by 250 GeV hadrons. Radiat Environ Biophys 19: 117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Discombe G (1948) L’origine des corps de Howell-Jolly et des anneaux de Cabot. Sang 19: 262–264Google Scholar
  111. Douglas GR, Nestmann ER, Lebel G (1986) Contribution of chlorination to the mutagenic activity of drinking water extracts in Salmonella and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Environ Health Perspect 69: 81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Duncan AM (1986) Enhanced sensitivity of lymphoblastoid cells from individuals carrying the mutation for the fragile X syndrome to the clastogenic effects of FUdR. Mutat Res 173: 201–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Duncan AM, Heddle JA, Blakey DH (1985) Mechanism of induction of nuclear anomalies by gamma-radiation in the colonic epithelium of the mouse. Cancer Res 45: 250–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Dunn TL, Gardiner RA, Seymour GJ, Lavin MF (1987) Genotoxicity of analgesic compounds assessed by an in vitro micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 189: 299–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Dwarakanath BS, Jain VK (1987) Modification of the radiation induced damage by 2-deoxy-Dglucose in organ cultures of human cerebral gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 741–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Eastmond DA, Tucker JD (1989a) Kinetochore localization in micronucleated cytokinesis-blocked Chinese hamster ovary cells: a new and rapid assay for identifying aneuploidyinducing agents. Mutat Res 224: 517–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Edwards AA, Lloyd DC, Purrott RJ (1979) Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and the Poisson distribution. Radiat Environ Biophys 16: 89–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. El-Labban NG, Osorio-Herrera E (1986) Apoptotic bodies and abnormally dividing epithelial cells in squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathology 10: 921–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. El Nahas SM, Oraby HA (1989) Micronuclei formation in somatic cells of mice exposed to 50-Hz electric fields. Environ Mol Mutagen 13: 107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Erexson GL, Kligerman AD (1987) A modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis. Environ Mol Mutagen 10: 377–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Erexson GL, Kligerman AD, Allen JW (1987) Diaziquone-induced micronuclei in cytochalasin B-blocked mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutat Res 178: 117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Erexson GL, Kligerman AD, Halperin EC, Honore GM, Allen JW (1989) Micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes of mice following exposure to gamma radiation. Environ Mol Mutagen 13: 128–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Evans HJ (1976) Methods for detecting chemical mutagens IIIC. Micronuclei in interphase cells. In: Hollaender A (ed) Chemical mutagens. Plenum Press, New York, pp 8–9Google Scholar
  124. Evans HJ (1988) Mutation cytogenetics: past, present and future. Mutat Res 204: 355–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Evans HJ (1990) Cytogenetic markers in detecting the effects of exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals. IARC Sci Publ 104:134–146Google Scholar
  126. Evans HJ, Neary GJ, Williamson FS (1959) The relative biological efficiency of single doses of fast neutrons and gamma-rays on Vicia faba roots and the effect of oxygen. Part II. Chromosome damage: the production of micronuclei. Int J Radiat Biol 3: 216–229Google Scholar
  127. Everson RB, Wehr CM, Erexson GL, MacGregor JT (1988) Association of marginal folate depletion with increased human chromosomal damage in vivo: demonstration by analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes. J Natl Cancer Inst 80: 525–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Falkvoll KH (1990) The occurrence of apoptosis, abnormal mitoses, cells dying in mitosis and micronuclei in a human melanoma xenograft exposed to single dose irradiation. Strahlenther Onkol 166: 487–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Fenech M (1990) The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in nucleated cells. In: Mendelsohn ML, Albertini RJ (eds) Mutation and the environment, Part B: Metabolism, testing methods, and chromosomes. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 340B. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 195–206Google Scholar
  130. Fenech M (1991) Optimisation of micronucleus assays for biological dosimetry. In: Gledhill BL, Mauro F (eds) New horizons in biological dosimetry. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 372. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 373–386Google Scholar
  131. Fenech M, Morley AA (1985a) Solutions to the kinetic problem in the micronucleus assay. Cytobios 43: 233–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Fenech M, Morley AA (1985e) The effect of donor age on spontaneous and induced micronuclei. Mutat Res 148: 99–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Fenech M, Morley AA (1986) Cytokincsis-block micronucleus method in human lymphocytes: effect of in vivo ageing and low dose X-irradiation. Mutat Res 161:193–198Google Scholar
  134. Fenech M, Morley AA (1987) Ageing in vivo does not influence micronucleus induction in human lymphocytes by X-irradiation. Mech Ageing Dev 39:113–119Google Scholar
  135. Fenech M, Morley AA (1989) Kinetochore detection in micronuclei: an alternative method for measuring chromosome loss. Mutagenesis 4: 98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Fenech M, Jarvis LR, Morley AA (1988) Preliminary studies on scoring micronuclei by computerised image analysis. Mutat Res 203: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Fenech M, Denham J, Francis W, Morley A (1990) Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of cancer patients following fractionated partial-body radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Biol 57: 373–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Fenech MF, Dunaiski V, Osborne Y, Morley AA (1991) The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay as a biological dosimeter in spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the mouse following acute whole-body irradiation. Mutat Res 263: 119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Fernandez M, Jaylet A (1987) An antioxidant protects against the clastogenic effects of benzo[a]-pyrene in the newt in vivo. Mutagenesis 2: 293–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Fisher DR, Hendry JH, Scott D (1988) Long-term repair in vivo of colony-forming ability and chromosomal injury in X-irradiated mouse hepatocytes. Radiat Res 113: 40–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Fliedner TM, Bond VP, Cronkite EP (1961) Structural, cytologic and autoradiographic (3H-thymidine) changes in the bone marrow following total body irradiation. Am J Pathol 38: 599–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Fliedner TM, Andrews G, Cronkite EP, Bond VP (1964) Early and late cytological effects of whole body irradiation on human bone marrow. Blood 23: 471–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Ford JH, Schultz CJ, Correll AT (1988) Chromosome elimination in micronuclei: a common cause of hypoploidy. Am J Hum Genet 43: 733–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Frackowiak S, Labidi B, Hernandez-Verdun D, Bouteille M (1986) Preservation of chromosome integrity during micronucleation induced by colchicine in PtK1 cells. Chromosoma 94: 468–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Frank DW, Trzos RJ, Good PI (1978) A comparison of two methods for evaluating drug-induced chromosome alterations. Mutat Res 56: 311–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Friedman MA, Staub J (1977) Induction of micronuclei in mouse and hamster bone-marrow by chemical carcinogens. Mutat Res 43: 255–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Friedman MA, Carter WH, Staub J, Segreti A (1978) Relative mutagenic potencies determined in the micronucleus test. J Theor Biol 73: 575–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Frorath B, Schmidt-Preuss U, Siemers U, Zöllner M, Rüdiger HW (1984) Heterozygous carriers for Bloom syndrome exhibit a spontaneously increased micronucleus formation in cultured fibroblasts. Hum Genet 67: 52–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Fuhrmann C, Streffer C, Müller W-U, Becker U (1992) Micronucleus assay prediction and application optimized by cytochalasin B induced binucleated tumor cells. Strahlentherapie 168: 603–609Google Scholar
  150. Gantenberg H-W, Wuttke K, Streffer C, Müller W-U (1991) Micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro or in vivo. Radiat Res 128: 276–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Garriott ML, Grahn D (1982) Neutron and gamma-ray effects measured by the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 105: 157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Garriott ML, Piper CE, Kokkino AJ (1988) A simplified protocol for the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. J Appl Toxicol 8: 141–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Geng L, Potten CS (1990) Changes after irradiation in the number of mitotic cells and apoptotic fragments in growing mouse hair follicles and the width of their hairs. Radiat Res 123: 75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. George KC, Streffer C, Pelzer T (1989) Combined effects of X-rays, Ro 03–8799, and hyperthermia on growth, necrosis, and cell proliferation in a mouse tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 16: 1119–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Géraud G, Laquerrière F, Masson C, Arnoult J, Labidi B, Hernandez-Verdun D (1989) Three-dimensional organization of micronuclei induced by colchicine in PtK1 cells. Exp Cell Res 181: 27–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. German J, Crippa LP (1966) Chromosomal breakage in diploid cell lines from Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Ann Génét 9: 143–154Google Scholar
  157. Ghosh S, Paweletz N (1984) Synchronous DNA synthesis and mitosis in multinucleate cells with one chromosome in each nucleus. Chromosoma 89: 304–311Google Scholar
  158. Ghosh S, Paweletz N (1987) Centrosome-kinetochore interaction in multinucleate cells. Chromosoma 95: 136–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Giavini E, Bonanomi L, Ornaghi F (1984) Developmental toxicity during the preimplantation period: embryotoxicity and clastogenic effects of chlorambucil in the rat. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 4: 341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Giavini E, Lemonica IP, Lou Y, Broccia ML, Prati M (1990) Induction of micronuclei and toxic effects in embryos of pregnant rats treated before implantation with anticancer drugs: cyclophosphamide, cis-platinum, adriamycin. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 10: 417–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Goddard AD, Heddle JA, Gallic BL, Phillips RA (1985) Radiation sensitivity of fibroblasts of bilateral retinoblastoma patients as determined by micronucleus induction in vitro. Mutat Res 152: 31–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Goldberg MT, Chidiac P (1986) An in vivo assay for small intestine genotoxicity. Mutat Res 164: 209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Gollapudi B, Kamra OP (1979) Application of a simple Giemsa-staining method in the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 64: 45–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Gollapudi BB, McClintock ML, Linscombe VA, Sinha AK (1984) Evaluation of the effect of food deprivation on micronucleus test results. Toxicol Lett 21: 353–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Gollapudi BB, Bruce RJ, Linscombe VA, Watanabe PG, Sinha AK (1986) Effect of food and water deprivation on the parameters of the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Mutat Res 173: 121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Gorski G (1987) Micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of patients with fraXq27 syndrome. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 25: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Grinfeld S, Jaylet A, Siboulet R, Deparis P, Chouroulinkov I (1986) Micronuclei in red blood cells of the newt Pleurodeles waltl after treatment with benzo(a)pyrene: dependence on dose, length of exposure, posttreatment time, and uptake of the drug. Environ Mutagen 8: 41–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Grote SJ, Revell SH (1972) Correlation of chromosome damage and colony-forming ability in Syrian hamster cells in culture irradiated in G1. Curr Top Radiat Res Q 7: 303–309Google Scholar
  169. Grote SJ, Joshi GP, Revell SH, Shaw CA (1981) Observations of radiation-induced chromosome fragment loss in live mammalian cells in culture, and its effect on colony-forming ability. Int J Radiat Biol 39: 395–408Google Scholar
  170. Gudi R, Sandhu SS, Athwal RS (1990) Kinetochore identification in micronuclei in mouse bone-marrow erythrocytes: an assay for the detection of aneuploidy-inducing agents. Mutat Res 234: 263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Gustavino B, Vitagliano E, Sottili A, Rizzoni M (1987) A comparison between short-term evolution of micronuclei induced by X-rays and colchicine in root tips of Vicia faba. Mutat Res 192: 109–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Hagmar L, Bellander T, Högstedt B, Hallberg T, Attewell R, Raihle G, Au WW, Legator MS, Mitelman F, Skerfving S (1988) Biological effects in a chemical factory with mutagenic exposure. I. Cytogenetic and haematological parameters. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 60: 437–444Google Scholar
  173. Hall SC, Wells J (1988) Micronuclei in human lymphocytes as a biological dosemeter: preliminary data following beta irradiation in vitro. J Radiol Protect 8: 97–102Google Scholar
  174. Hansmann I, Röhrborn G (1973) Chromosome aberrations in preimplantation stages of mice after treatment with triazoquinone. Humangenetik 18: 101–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Harper BL, Legator MS (1987) Pyridine prevents the clastogenicity of benzene but not of benzo[a]pyrene or cyclophosphamide. Mutat Res 179: 23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Hart JW, Engberg-Pedersen H (1983) Statistics of the mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test: counting, distribution and evaluation of results. Mutat Res 111: 195–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Hayashi M, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1982) High sensitivity in micronucleus induction of a mouse strain ( MS ). Mutat Res 105: 253–256Google Scholar
  178. Hayashi M, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1983) An application of acridine orange fluorescent staining to the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 120: 241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Hayashi M, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1984a) Kinetics of micronucleus formation in relation to chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow. Mutat Res 127: 129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Hayashi M, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1984b) A pilot experiment for the micronucleus test. The multi-sampling at multi-dose levels method. Mutat Res 141: 165–169Google Scholar
  181. Hayashi M, Kishi M, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1988) Micronucleus tests in mice on 39 food additives and eight miscellaneous chemicals. Food Chem Toxicol 26: 487–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Hayashi M, Sutou S, Shimada H, Sato S, Sasaki YF, Wakata A (1989) Difference betweenGoogle Scholar
  183. Hayashi M, Norppa H, Sofuni T, Ishidate M (1990a) Automation of mouse micronucleus test by flow cytometry and image analysis. Cytometry (Suppl) 4: 35 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  184. Hayashi M, Morita T, Kodama Y, Sofuni T, Ishidate M Jr (1990b) The micronucleus assay with mouse peripheral blood reticulocytes using acridine orange-coated slides. Mutat Res 245: 245–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Hayashi M, Sofuni T, Morita T (1991) Simulation study of the effects of multiple treatments in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Mutat Res 252: 281–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. He S, Baker RSU (1989) Initiating carcinogen, triethylenemelamine, induces micronuclei in skin target cells. Environ Mol Mutagen 14: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. He S, Baker R (1991) Micronuclei in mouse skin cells following in vivo exposure to benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, chrysene, pyrene and urethane. Environ Mol Mutagen 17: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Heddle JA (1973) A rapid in vivo test for chromosomal damage. Mutat Res 18: 187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Heddle JA (1990) Micronuclei in vivo. In: Mendelsohn ML, Albertini RJ (eds) Mutation and the Environment, Part B: Metabolism, testing methods, and chromosomes. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 340B. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 185–194Google Scholar
  190. Heddle JA, Bruce WR (1977a) Comparison of tests for mutagenicity or carcinogenicity using assays for sperm abnormalities, formation of micronuclei, and mutations in Salmonella. In: Hiatt HH, Watson JD, Winsten JA (eds) Origins of human Cancer, vol 4. Cold Spring Harbour Conferences, Cold Spring Harbour Laboratories, pp 1549–1557Google Scholar
  191. Heddle JA, Bruce WR (1977b) On the use of multiple assays for mutagenicity, especially the micronucleus, Salmonella, and sperm abnormality assays. In: Scott D, Bridges BA, Sobels FH (eds) Progress in genetic toxicology. Proc 2nd Int Conf on Environ Mutagens, Edinburgh 1977. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 265–274Google Scholar
  192. Heddle JA, Carrano AV (1977) The DNA content of micronuclei induced in mouse bone marrow by gamma-irradiation: evidence that micronuclei arise from acentric chromosomal fragments. Mutat Res 44: 63–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Heddle JA, Harris JW (1975) Rapid screening of radioprotective drugs in vivo. Radiat Res 61: 350–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Heddle JA, Benz RD, Countryman PI (1978a) Measurement of chromosomal breakage in cultured cells by the micronucleus technique. In: Evans HJ, Lloyd DC (eds) Mutageninduced chromosome damage in man. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 185–200Google Scholar
  195. Heddle JA, Lue CB, Saunders EF, Benz RD (1978b) Sensitivity to five mutagens in Fanconi’s anemia as measured by the micronucleus method. Cancer Res 38: 2983–2988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Heddle JA, Blakey DH, Duncan AMV, Goldberg MT, Newmark H, Wargovich MJ, Bruce WR (1982) Micronuclei and related nuclear anomalies as a short-term assay for colon carcinogens. Banbury Rep 13: 367–377Google Scholar
  197. Heddle JA, Hite M, Kirkhart B, Mavournin K, MacGregor JT, Nowell GW, Salamone MF (1983) The induction of micronuclei as a measure of genotoxicity. Mutat Res 123: 61–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Heddle JA, Cimino MC, Hayashi M, Romagna F, Shelby MD, Tucker JD, Vanparys P, MacGregor JT (1991) Micronuclei as an index of cytogenetic damage: past, present, and future. Environ Mol Mutagen 18: 277–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Henderson L, Cole R, Cole J, Cole H, Aghamohammadi Z, Regan T (1984) Sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus induction as indicators of genetic damage in maternal and foetal cells. Mutat Res 126: 47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Henderson LM, Aghamohammadi SZ, Arlett CF, Cole RJ (1986) Lack of discernible effect of diagnostic ultrasound on the chromosomes of cord blood lymphocytes exposed in utero. Br J Radiol 59: 499–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Hennig UG, Rudd NL, Hoar DI (1988) Kinetochore immunofluorescence in micronuclei: a rapid method for the in situ detection of aneuploidy and chromosome breakage in human fibroblasts. Mutat Res 203: 405–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Hernandez-Verdun D, Bouteille M, Ege T, Ringertz NR (1979) Fine structure of nucleoli in micronucleated cells. Exp Cell Res 124: 223–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Hernandez-Verdun D, Gregoire M, Labidi B, Bouteille M (1986) Sorting of micronuclei from PtK1 cells. Exp Cell Res 164: 243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Hirano A, Kirimura T (1974) Virally transformed cells and cytochalasin B, I. The effect of cytochalasin B on cytokinesis, karyokinesis and DNA synthesis in cells. Exp Cell Res 89: 91–120Google Scholar
  205. Hoffmann M, Hagberg S, Karlsson A, Nilsson R, Ranstam J, Högstedt B (1984) Inorganic lead exposure does not affect lymphocyte micronuclei in car radiator repair workers. Hereditas 101: 223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Högstedt B (1984) Micronuclei in lymphocytes with preserved cytoplasm — a method for assessment of cytogenetic damage in man. Mutat Res 130: 63–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Högstedt B, Karlsson A (1985) The size of micronuclei in human lymphocytes varies according to inducing agent used. Mutat Res 156: 229–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Högstedt B, Mitelman F (1981) The interrelations of micronuclei, chromosomal instability, and mutational activity in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, a hypothesis. Hereditas 95: 165–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Högstedt B, Nilsson PG, Mitelman F (1981a) Micronuclei in erythropoietic bone marrow cells: relation to cytogenetic pattern and prognosis in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Gen Cytogen 3: 185–193Google Scholar
  210. Högstedt B, Gullberg B, Mark-Vendel E, Mitelman F, Skerfving S (1981b) Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes of humans exposed mainly to petroleum vapors. Hereditas 94: 179–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Högstedt B, Gullberg B, Hedner K, Kolnig A-M, Mitelman F, Skerfving S, Widegren B (1983) Chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes in humans exposed to ethylene oxide. Hereditas 98: 105–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Högstedt B, Karlsson A, Sjöstedt L, Wickberg B (1986) Chemists did not differ from theologians regarding lymphocyte micronuclei. Hereditas 105: 67–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Högstedt B, Karlsson A, Holmén A (1988a) Frequencies of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated in vitro by phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen. Hereditas 109: 53–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Högstedt B, Bratt I, Holmén A, Hagmar L, Skerfving S (1988b) Frequency and size distribution of micronuclei in lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen in workers exposed to piperazine. Hereditas 109: 139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Högstedt B, Holmen A, Karlsson A, Raihle G, Nillius K, Vestlund K (1991) Gasoline pump mechanics had increased frequencies and sizes of micronuclei in lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen. Mutat Res 263: 51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Holmen A, Akesson B, Hansen L, Frithiof J, Mitelman F, Karlsson A, Persson L, Welinder H, Skerfving S, Högstedt B (1988) Comparison among five mutagenicity assays in workers producing polyurethane foams. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 60: 175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Holmstrom M (1988) Sex differences in the micronucleus test: true or false? Mutagenesis 3: 177–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Hooftman RN, de Raat WK (1982) Induction of nuclear anomalies (micronuclei) in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of the eastern mudminnow Umbra pygmaea by ethyl methane sulphonate. Mutat Res 104: 147–152Google Scholar
  219. Hosari E, Brüderlein S, Gebhart E (1986) Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer from human tumor cells to human recipient cells evidence by premature condensation of the transfered chromosomes. Cancer Genet Cytogent 20: 63–71Google Scholar
  220. Hose JE (1985) Potential uses of sea urchin embryos for identifying toxic chemicals: description of a bioassay incorporating cytologic, cytogenetic and embryologic endpoints. J Appl Toxicol 5: 245–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Hossack DNJ, Richardson JC (1977) Examinations of the potential mutagenicity of hair dye constituents using the micronucleus test. Experientia 33: 377–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Howell WI-I (1891) The life-history of the formed elements of the blood, especially the red blood corpuscles. J Morphol 4: 57–116Google Scholar
  223. Huber R, Bauchinger M (1990) Development and perspectives of the-human lymphocyte micronucleus assay. In: Obe G (ed) Advances in mutagenesis research, vol 1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 89–104Google Scholar
  224. Huber R, Streng S, Bauchinger M (1983) The suitability of the human lymphocyte micronucleus assay system for biological dosimetry. Mutat Res 111: 185–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Huber R, Braselmann H, Bauchinger M (1989) Screening for interindividual differences in radiosensitivity by means of the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes. Radiat Environ Biophys 28: 113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Huber R, Braselmann H, Bauchinger M (1992) Intra-and inter-individual variations of background and radiation-induced micronucleus frequencies in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 61: 655–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Hutter K-J, Stoehr M (1982) Rapid detection of mutagen induced micronucleated erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Histochemistry 75: 353–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Ikeuchi T, Weinfeld H, Sandberg AA (1972) Chromosome pulverization in micronuclei induced by tritiated thymidine. J Cell Biol 52: 97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Ikushima T (1987) Chromosomal responses to ionizing radiation reminiscent of an adaptive response in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Mutat Res 180: 215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Ikushima T (1989) Radio-adaptive response: characterization of a cytogenetic repair induced by low-level ionizing radiation in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Mutat Res 227: 241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Ilyinskikh NN (1990) Genome instability as a consequence of DNA-repair and immune system abnormalities. Acta Biol Hung 41: 101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Inouye T, Sasaki YF, Imanishi H, Watanebe M, Ohta T, Shirasu Y (1988) Suppression of mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells by post-treatment with vanillin. Mutat Res 202: 93–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Ishidate M Jr, Harnois MC, Sofuni T (1988) A comparative analysis of data on the clastogenicity of 951 chemical substances tested in mammalian cell cultures. Mutat Res 195: 151–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Iskandar O, Vijayalaxmi (1981) The enhancement of the effect of aflatoxin B by metabolic activation with rat-liver microsomes on human lymphocytes assayed with the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 91: 63–66Google Scholar
  235. Izquierdo-Enguita M, Sinues-Porta B (1989) Biomonitoring of genotoxicity induced by smoking. Hereditas 111: 201–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Jacky PB, Beek B, Sutherland G (1983) Fragile sites in chromosomes: possible model for the study of spontaneous chromosome breakage. Science 220: 69–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Jagetia GC (1990) Frequency of micronucleated cells in the mouse bone marrow after exposure to various doses of gamma-radiation. Mutat Res 230: 45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Jain VK, Kalia VK, Sharma R, Maharajan V, Menon M (1985) Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on glycolysis, proliferation kinetics and radiation response of human cancer cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 943–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Jaylet A, Deparis P, Ferrier V, Grinfeld S, Siboulet R (1986a) A new micronucleus test using peripheral blood erythrocytes of the newt Pleurodeles waltl to detect mutagens in freshwater pollution. Mutat Res 164: 245–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Jaylet A, Deparis P, Gaschignard D (1986b) Induction of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of axolotl larvae following in vivo exposure to mutagenic agents. Mutagenesis 1: 211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Jenssen D (1975) The induction of micronuclei by frameshift mutagens in mouse erythroblasts. Mutat Res 29: 198 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  242. Jenssen D, Ramel C (1976) Dose response at low doses of X-irradiation and MMS on the induction of micronuclei in mouse erythroblasts. Mutat Res 41: 311–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Jenssen D, Ramel C (1978) Factors affecting the induction of micronuclei at low doses of X-rays, MMS and dimethylnitrosamine in mouse erythroblasts. Mutat Res 58: 51–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Jenssen D, Ramel C (1980) The micronucleus test as part of a short-term mutagenicity test program for the prediction of carcinogenicity evaluated by 143 agents tested. Mutat Res 75: 191–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Jenssen D, Ramel C, Göthe R (1974) The induction of micronuclei by frameshift mutagens at the time of nucleus expulsion in mouse erythroblasts. Mutat Res 26: 553–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Jolly J (1905) Sur l’évolution des globules rouges dans le sang des embryons de mammifères. C R Soc Biol 58: 593–596Google Scholar
  247. Jolly J (1907) Recherches sur la formation des globules rouges des mammifères. Arch Anat Microsc 9: 133–314Google Scholar
  248. Joshi GP, Nelson WJ, Revell SH, Shaw CA (1982a) X-ray-induced chromosome damage in live mammalian cells, and improved measurements of its effects on their colony-forming ability. Int J Radiat Biol 41: 161–181Google Scholar
  249. Joshi GP, Nelson WJ, Revell SH, Shaw CA (1982b) Discrimination of slow growth from non-survival among small colonies of diploid Syrian hamster cells after chromosome damage induced by a range of X-ray doses. Int J Radiat Biol 42: 283–296Google Scholar
  250. Kaffenberger W, Becker K, van Beuningen D (1990) Comparison of micronucleus frequencies and proliferation kinetics in three X-irradiated cell lines. Strahlenther Onkol 166:617–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Kamiguchi Y, Tateno H, Mikamo K (1991) Micronucleus test in 2-cell embryos as a simple assay system for human sperm chromosome aberrations. Mutat Res 252:297–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Kato H, Sandberg AA (1967) Chromosome pulverization in human binucleate cells following Colcemid treatment. J Cell Biol 34: 35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Kato H, Sandberg AA (1968) Chromosome pulverization in human cells with micronuclei. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 165–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Kaufman MH (1978) The experimental production of mammalian parthenogenetic embryos. In: Daniel JC Jr (ed) Methods in mammalian reproduction. Academic Press, New York, pp 21–47Google Scholar
  255. Kerekes J, Novak J, Köteles GJ (1988) Micronucleus frequency in peripheral lymphocytes for the differential diagnosis of radiation injuries combined with thermal burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 9: 275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Kerr JFR, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (1972) Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 26: 239–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Khadzhidekova V (1989) Frequency of micronuclei in lymphocytes from in vitro gamma-irradiated human peripheral blood. Radiobiol Radiother Berl 30: 157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. King M-T, Wild D (1979) Transplacental mutagenesis: the micronucleus test on fetal mouse blood. Hum Genet 51: 183–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. King M-T, Wild D (1983) The mutagenic potential of hyperthermia and fever in mice. Mutat Res 111: 219–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Kirkhart B (1981) Micronucleus test on 21 compounds. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 698–704Google Scholar
  261. Kliesch U, Adler ID (1980) Sensitivity comparison of chromosome analysis and micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow. Mutat Res 74: 160 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  262. Kliesch U, Danford N, Adler ID (1981) Micronucleus test and bone-marrow chromosome analysis; a comparison of 2 methods in vivo for evaluating chemically induced chromosomal aberrations. Mutat Res 80: 321–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Knuutila S, Eriksson J, Juvonen E, Kovanen R, Luotola J, Westermarck T (1985) High dietary selenium increases radiation-induced micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow. Hereditas 102: 237–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Köksal G, Lloyd DC, Edwards AA, Prosser JS (1989) The dependence of the micronucleus yield in human lymphocytes on culture and cytokinesis blocking times. Radiat Protect Dosim 29: 209–212Google Scholar
  265. Koerting-Keiffer LE, Mickey GH (1969) Einwirkung von Koffein auf Chromosomen. Z Pflanzenzücht 61: 244–251Google Scholar
  266. Komar A (1973) Parthenogenetic development of mouse eggs activated by heat shock. J Reprod Fertil 35: 437–443Google Scholar
  267. Kormos C, Köteles GJ (1988) Micronuclei in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 199: 31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Kormos C, Köteles GJ (1990) Comparison of cytogenetic tests for monitoring overexposures from ionizing radiation. Acta Biol Hung 41: 115–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Kramer J, Schaich-Walch G, Nüsse M (1990) DNA synthesis in radiation-induced micronuclei studied by bromodeoxyuridine ( BrdUrd) labelling and anti-BrdUrd antibodies. Mutagenesis 5: 491–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Krauter PW, Anderson SL, Harrison FL (1987) Radiation-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of Rana catesbeiana: an aquatic animal model for in vivo genotoxicity studies. Environ Mol Mutagen 10: 285–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Krogh Jensen M (1977) Cytogenetic findings in pernicious anaemia. Comparison between results obtained with chromosome studies and the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 45: 249–252Google Scholar
  272. Kürten S, Obe G (1975) Premature chromosome condensation in the bone marrow of Chinese hamsters after whole body irradiation with 60Co gamma rays in vivo. Humangenetik 28: 97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Kwan DK, Kagan AR, Norman A (1985) Relative biological effectiveness of t25I in the induction of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Radiother Oncol 4: 163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Labidi B, Gregoire M, Hernandez-Verdun D, Bouteille M (1985) Procedure for isolating micronuclei from rat kangaroo cultured cells containing individualized chromosomes. Eur J Cell Biol 38: 165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Labidi B, Frackowiak S, Hernandez-Verdun D (1987a) Identification and sorting of micronuclei containing individual chromosomes. Exp Cell Res 173: 617–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Labidi B, Gregoire M, Frackowiak S, Hernandez-Verdun D, Bouteille M (1987b) RNA polymerase activity in PtK1 micronuclei containing individual chromosomes. An in vitro and in situ study. Exp Cell Res 169: 233–244Google Scholar
  277. Labidi B, Broders F, Meyer JL, Hernandez-Verdun D (1990) Distribution of rDNA and 28S, 18S, and 5S rRNA in micronuclei containing a single chromosome. Biochem Cell Biol 68: 957–964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Lähdetie J (1986) Micronucleated spermatids in the seminal fluid of smokers and nonsmokers. Mutat Res 172: 255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Lähdetie J (1988) Induction and survival of micronuclei in rat spermatids. Comparison of two meiotic micronucleus techniques using cyclophosphamide. Mutat Res 203: 47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Lähdetie J, Parvinen M (1981) Meiotic micronuclei induced by X-rays in early spermatids of the rat. Mutat Res 81: 103–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Larramendy ML, Knuutila S (1991) Increased frequency of micronuclei in B and T8 lymphocytes from smokers. Mutat Res 259: 189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Lasne C, Gu ZW, Venegas W, Chouroulinkov I (1984) The in vitro micronucleus assay for detection of cytogenetic effects induced by mutagen-carcinogens: comparison with the in vitro sister-chromatid exchange assay. Mutat Res 130: 273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Lavu S, Reddy PP, Reddi OS (1985) Iodine-125 induced micronuclei and sperm head abnormalities in mice. Int J Radiat Biol 47: 249–253Google Scholar
  284. LePecq JB, Paoletti CA (1967) A fluorescent complex between ethidium bromide and nucleic acids. J Mol Biol 27: 87–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Littlefield LG, Sayer AM, Frome EL (1989) Comparisons of dose-response parameters for radiation-induced acentric fragments and micronuclei observed in cytokinesis-arrested lymphocytes. Mutagenesis 4: 265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Livingston GK, Gandi OP, Chatterjee I, Witt K, Roti Roti JL (1986) Reproductive integrity of mammalian cells exposed to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields. Final Report 218209, New York State Power Lines ProjectGoogle Scholar
  287. Lloyd DC, Edwards AA, Leonard A, Deknudt GL, Verschaeve L, Natarajan AT, Darroudi F, Obe G, Palitti F, Tanzarella C, Tawn EJ (1992) Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes induced in vitro by very low doses of X-rays. Int J Radiat Biol 61: 335–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Longwell AC, Yerganian G (1965) Some observations on nuclear budding and nuclear extrusions in a Chinese hamster cell culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 34: 53–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Loomis DP, Shy CM, Allen JW, Saccomanno G (1990) Micronuclei in epithelial cells from sputum of uranium workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 16: 355–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Ludwików G, Stalnacke CG, Johanson KJ, Sundell-Bergman S, Richter S (1990) Microscopic and flow cytometric study of micronuclei in iododeoxyuridine labelled cells irradiated with soft X-rays. Acta Oncol 29: 761–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Ma TH (1979) Micronuclei induced by X-rays and chemical mutagens in meiotic pollen mother cells of Tradescantia. A promising mutagen test system. Mutat Res 64: 307–313Google Scholar
  292. Ma TH, Anderson VA, Harris MM, Neas RE, Lee TS (1985) Mutagenicity of drinking water detected by the Tradescantia micronucleus test. Can J Genet Cytol 27: 143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. MacGregor JT (1991) Micronucleus assay protocols [letter]. Mutat Res 259: 123–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. MacGregor JT, Wehr CM, Gould DH (1980) Clastogen-induced micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes: the basis of an improved micronucleus test. Environ Mutagen 2: 509–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. MacGregor JT, Wehr CM, Langlois RG (1983) A simple fluorescent staining procedure for micronuclei and RNA in erythrocytes using Hoechst 33258 and pyronin Y. Mutat Res 120: 269–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. MacGregor JT, Heddle JA, Hite M, Margolin BH, Ramel C, Salamone MF, Tice RR, Wild D (1987) Guidelines for the conduct of micronucleus assays in mammalian bone marrow erythrocytes. Mutat Res 189: 103–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. MacGregor JT, Wehr CM, Henika PR, Shelby MD (1990) The in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus test: measurement at steady state increases assay efficiency and permits integration with toxicity studies. Fund Appl Toxicol 14: 513–522Google Scholar
  298. Mackey BE, MacGregor JT (1979) The micronucleus test: statistical design and analysis. Mutat Res 64: 195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Madle S, Nowak J, Obe G (1976) Effects of inhibitors of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis on frequencies and types of premature chromosome condensation from X-ray-induced micronuclei. Hum Genet 34: 143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Madle E, Korte A, Beek B (1986) Species differences in mutagenicity testing: I. Micronucleus and SCE tests in rats, mice, and Chinese hamsters with aflatoxin Bl. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 6: 1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Maier P, Schmid W (1975) The non-induction of micronuclei by quinacrine. Mutat Res 30: 299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Maier P, Schmid W (1976) Ten model mutagens evaluated by the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 40: 325–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Mäki-Paakkanen J (1987) Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sister-chromatid exchanges in blood lymphocytes after occupational exposure to low levels of styrene. Mutat Res 189: 399–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Mandard AM, Duigou F, Marnay J, Masson P, Qiu SL, Yi JS, Barrellier P, Lebigot G (1987) Analysis of the results of the micronucleus test in patients presenting upper digestive tract cancers and in non-cancerous subjects. Int J Cancer 39: 442–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Marshall I, Bianchi M (1983) Micronucleus induction in Vicia faba roots, Part I. Absence of dose-rate, fractionation and oxygen effect at low doses of low LET radiations. Int J Radiat Biol 44: 151–162Google Scholar
  306. Masunaga S, Ono K, Abe M (1991) A method for the selective measurement of the radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors — combination of immunofluorescence staining to BrdU and micronucleus assay. Radiat Res 125: 243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Matter BE, Grauwiler J (1974) Micronuclei in mouse bone-marrow cells. A simple in vivo model for the evaluation of drug-induced chromosomal aberrations. Mutat Res 23: 239–249Google Scholar
  308. Matter BE, Grauwiler J (1975) The micronucleus test as a simple model, in vivo, for the evaluation of drug-induced chromosome aberrations, comparative studies with 13 compounds. Mutat Res 29: 198–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Matter BE, Jaeger I (1975a) Premature chromosome condensation, structural chromosome aberrations, and micronuclei in early mouse embryos after treatment of paternal postmeiotic germ cells with triethylenemelamine. Possible mechanisms for chemically induced dominant-lethal mutations. Mutat Res 33: 251–260Google Scholar
  310. Matter BE, Jaeger I (1975b) The cytogenetic basis of dominant-lethal mutations in mice, studies with TEM, EMS, and 6-mercaptopurine. Mutat Res 46: 230 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  311. Matter B, Schmid W (1971) Trenimon-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells of six mammalian species, evaluated by the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 12: 417–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Mavournin KH, Blakey DH, Cimino MC, Salamone MF, Heddle JA (1990) The in vivo micronucleus assay in mammalian bone marrow and peripheral blood. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program. Mutat Res 239: 29–80Google Scholar
  313. Midander J (1982) Oxygen enhancement ratios for glutathione deficient human fibroblasts determined from the frequency of radiation induced micronuclei. Int J Radiat Biol 42: 195–198Google Scholar
  314. Midander J, Révész L (1980) The frequency of micronuclei as a measure of cell survival in irradiated cell populations. Int J Radiat Biol 38: 237–242Google Scholar
  315. Migliore L, Nieri M, Amodio S, Loprieno N (1989) The human lymphocyte micronucleus assay: a comparison between whole-blood and separated lymphocyte cultures. Mutat Res 227: 167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Mihalache D, Stefanescu DT, Motoiu I, Constantiniu L, Costache A, Dumitrescu A (1989) Micronucleus test applied in patients with acute leukemia, before and at different intervals during the cytostatic treatment. Morphol Embryol Bucur 35: 209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Miller BM, Adler ID (1990) Application of antikinetochore antibody staining ( CREST staining) to micronuclei in erythrocytes induced in vivo. Mutagenesis 5: 411–415Google Scholar
  318. Mirkova E, Ashby J (1987) Relative distribution of mature erythrocytes, polychromatic erythrocytes (PE) and micronucleated PE on mouse bone-marrow smears: control observations. Mutat Res 182: 203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Mitchell deG, Brice AJ (1986) Investigations into parametric analysis of data from in vivo micronucleus assays by comparison with non-parametric methods. Mutat Res 159: 139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. Mitchell IdeG, Carlton JB, Gilbert PJ (1988) The detection and importance of outliers in the in vivo micronucleus assay. Mutagenesis 3: 491–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. Mitchell JC, Norman A (1987) The induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes by low doses of radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 52: 527–535Google Scholar
  322. Mohtashamipur E, Norpoth K, Straeter H (1987) Clastogenic effect of passive smoking on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of NMRI mice. Toxicol Lett 35: 153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Mohtashamipur E, Steinforth T, Norpoth K (1988) Comparative bone marrow clastogenicity of cigarette sidestream, mainstream and recombined smoke condensates in mice. Mutagenesis 3: 419–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Molls M, Streffer C (1984) The influence of G2 progression on X-ray sensitivity of two-cell mouse embryos. Int J Radiat Biol 46: 355–365Google Scholar
  325. Molls M, Streffer C, Zamboglou N (1981) Micronucleus formation in preimplanted mouse embryos cultured in vitro after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol 39: 307–314Google Scholar
  326. Molls M, Weißenborn U, Streffer C (1982) Bestrahlung von Mäuseembryonen des Pronukleusund 2-Zell-Stadiums: die Abhängigkeit der Mikronukleusbildung and Zellvermehrung von DNA-Gehalt and Zellzyklusphase. Strahlentherapie 158: 504–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. Morimoto K, Kitamura M, Kondo H, Koizumi A (1986) Genotoxicity of diesel exhaust emissions in a battery of in-vitro short-term and in-vivo bioassays. Dev Toxicol Environ Sci 13: 85–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Moroi Y, Peebles C, Fritzler MJ, Steigerwald J, Tan EM (1980) Autoantibody to centromere (kinetochore) in scleroderma sera. Proc Natl Acad Sci 77: 1627–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Moses SA, Christie AF, Bryant PE (1990) Clastogenicity of PvuII and Eco RI in electroporated CHO cells assayed by metaphase chromosomal aberrations and by micronuclei using the cytokinesis-block technique. Mutagenesis 5: 599–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Muller L (1988) Micronucleus induction in mouse and rat fetuses treated transplacentally during histogenesis with mitomycin C and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 8: 303–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. Müller W-U (1989) Toxicity of various combinations of X-rays, caffeine, and mercury in mouse embryos. Int J Radiat Biol 56: 315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Müller W-U, Streffer C (1984) Distribution of micronuclei among single cells of pre-implantation mouse embryos after X-irradiation in vitro. Mutat Res 125: 65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Müller W-U, Streffer C (1986) Change in frequency of radiation induced micronuclei during interphase of four-cell mouse embryos in vitro. Radiat Environ Biophys 25: 195–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Müller W-U, Streffer C (1991) Biological indicators for radiation damage. Int J Radiat Biol 59: 863–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. Müller D, Langauer M, Rathenberg R, Strasser FF, Hess R (1972) Mikrokerntest sowie Chromosomenutersuchung an somatischen and gonosomalen Zellen des Chinesischen Hamsters nach Cyclophosphamidgabe. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 56: 381–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Zamboglou N (1981) Effects of a combined treatment with X-rays and phenols on preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro. Radiat Environ Biophys 19: 247–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Fischer C (1982a) Combined treatment of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro with sodium nutrite and X-rays. Radiat Environ Biophys 20: 187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Kaiser U (1982b) The combined treatment of preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro with cadmium (CdSO4, CdF2) and X-rays. Arch Toxicol 51: 303–312Google Scholar
  339. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Wurm R (1985a) Supraadditive formation of micronuclei in preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro after combined treatment with X-rays and caffeine. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 5: 123–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Fischer-Lando C (1985b) Enhancement of radiation effects by mercury in preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro. Arch Toxicol 57: 114–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Fischer-Lando C (1986) Toxicity of sodium arsenite in mouse embryos in vitro and its influence on radiation risk. Arch Toxicol 59: 172–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Müller W-U, Streffer C, Markoski L (1987) Does tributyl phosphate influence the radiation risk of a highly proliferating system — the early mouse embryo in vitro? Health Phys 53: 667–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Müller W-U, Schlusen I, Streffer C (1991) Direct evidence that radiation induced micronuclei of early embryos require a mitosis for expression. Radiat Environ Biophys 30: 117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Munoz N, Hayashi M, Bang LJ, Wahrendorf J, Crespi M, Bosch FX (1987) Effect of riboflavin, retinol, and zinc on micronuclei of buccal mucosa and of esophagus: a randomized double-blind intervention study in China. J Natl Cancer Inst 79: 687–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Murray D, Prager A, Altschuler EM, Brock WA (1991) Effect of thiols on micronucleus frequency in gamma-irradiated mammalian cells. Mutat Res 247: 167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. Mutation Research (1990) Serial versus single dosing protocols for the rodent bone-marrow micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 234: 111–261Google Scholar
  347. Nair U, Obe G, Nair J, Maru GB, Bhide SV, Pieper R, Bartsch H (1991) Evaluation of frequency of micronucleated oral mucosa cells as a marker for genotoxic damage in chewers of betel quid with or without tobacco. Mutat Res 261: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Narod SA, Neri L, Risch HA, Raman S (1988) Lymphocyte micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges among Canadian federal laboratory employees. Am J Ind Med 14: 449–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. Nassi L, Epe B, Schiffmann D, Adam W, Beinhauer A, Griesbeck A (1987) Induction of morphological transformation and micronuclei in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts by 1,2-dioxetanes. Correlation with single-strand breaks in HL-60 cells. Carcinogenesis 8: 947–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Natarajan AT, Obe G (1980) Screening of human populations for mutations induced by environmental pollutants: use of human lymphocyte system. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 4: 468–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Natarajan AT, Zwanenburg TSB (1982) Mechanisms for chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells. Mutat Res 95: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Natarajan AT, Darroudi F, Mullenders LHF, Meijers M (1986) The nature and repair of DNA lesions that lead to chromosomal aberrations induced by ionizing radiations. Mutat Res 160: 231–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Nesnow S, Argus M, Bergman H, Chu K, Frith C, Helmes T, McGaughy R, Ray V, Slaga TJ, Tennant R, Weisburger E (1986) Chemical carcinogens. A review and analysis of the literature of selected chemicals and the establishment of the gene-tox carcinogen data base. Mutat Res 185: 1–195Google Scholar
  354. Nito S, Kondo Y, Ono T, Ariyuki F (1986) In vitro micronucleus method with erythropoietindifferentiated erythrocytes. Mutat Res 175: 243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Nito S, Ariyuki F, Okaniwa A (1988) Spontaneous expulsion of micronuclei by enucleation in the micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 207: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Nordenson I, Beckman L (1984) Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to low levels of styrene. Hum Hered 34: 178–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Nordenson I, Mild KH, Östman U, Ljungberg H (1988) Chromosomal effects in lymphocytes of 400 kV-substation workers. Radiat Environ Biophys 27: 39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Nordic Study Group on the Health Risk of Chromosome Damage (1990) A Nordic data base on somatic chromosome damage in humans. Mutat Res 241: 325–337Google Scholar
  359. Norman A, Adams FH, Riley RF (1978) Cytogenetic effects of contrast media and triiodobenzoic acid derivatives in human lymphocytes. Radiology 129:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Norman A, Cochran S, Bass D, Roe D (1984) Effects of age, sex and diagnostic X-rays on chromosome damage. Int J Radiat Biol 46:317–321Google Scholar
  361. Norman A, Bass D, Roe D (1985) Screening human populations for chromosome aberrations. Mutat Res 143: 155–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Norman A, McBride WH, Bennett LR, Santos-Mello R, Iwamoto K, Hidmi H (1988) Postirradiation protection of chromosomes by linoleate. Int J Radiat Biol 54: 521–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Norppa H, Vainio H, Sorsa M (1983) Metabolic activation of styrene by erythrocytes detected as increased sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes. Cancer Res 43: 3579–3582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Norppa H, Hayashi M, Mäki-Paakkanen J, Sorsa M (1990) The micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. In: Mendelsohn ML, Albertini RJ (eds) Mutation and the environment, Part B: Metabolism, testing methods, and chromosomes. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 340B. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 207–216Google Scholar
  365. Nüsse M, Kramer J (1984) Flow cytometric analysis of micronuclei found in cells after irradiation. Cytometry 5: 20–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Nüsse M, Krämer M, Viaggi S, Bartsch A, Bonatti S (1987) Antikinetochore antibodies and flow karyotyping: new techniques to detect aneuploidy in mammalian cells induced by ionizing radiation and chemicals. Molec Toxicol 1: 393–405Google Scholar
  367. Nüsse M, Viaggi S, Bonatti S (1989) Induction of kinetochore positive and negative micronuclei in V79 cells by the alkylating agent diethylsulfate. Mutagenesis 4: 174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Nüsse M, Recknagel S, Beisker W (1992) Micronuclei induced by 2-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile contain single chromosomes as demonstrated by the combined use of flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining with anti-kinetochore antibodies. Mutagenesis 7: 57–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Obe G, Anderson D (1987) Genetic effects of ethanol. International Commission for Protection against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens. ICPEMC Working Paper No. 15/1. Mutat Res 186: 177–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. Obe G, Beek B (1975) The human leukocyte test system VII. Further investigations concerning micronucleus-derived premature chromosome condensation. Humangenetik 30: 143–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Obe G, Beek B (1982) Premature chromosome condensation in micronuclei. In: Rao PN, Johnson RT, Sperling K (eds) Premature chromosome condensation, application in basic clinical and mutational research. Academic Press, New York, pp 113–130Google Scholar
  372. Obe G, Beek B, Vaidya VG (1975a) The human leukocyte system III. Premature chromosome condensation from chemically and X-ray induced micronuclei. Mutat Res 27:89–101Google Scholar
  373. Obe G, Lüdcke JBP, Waldenmaier K, Sperling K (1975b) Premature chromosome condensation in a case of Fanconi’s anemia. Humangenetik 28: 159–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Obe G, Ristow H, Herha J (1979) Effect of ethanol on chromosomal structure and function. In: Majchrowicz E, Noble EP (eds) Biochemistry and pharmacology of ethanol, vol I. Plenum Press, New York, pp 659–676Google Scholar
  375. Obe G, Vogt H-J, Madle S, Fahning A, Heller WD (1982a) Doubleblind study on the effect of cigarette smoking on the chromosomes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo. Mutat Res 92: 309–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Obe G, Natarajan AT, Palitti F (1982b) Role of double-strand breaks in the formation of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. In: Natarajan AI, Obe G, Altman H (eds) DNA repair, chromosome alterations and chromosome structure; Progress in mutation research, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  377. Odagiri Y, Dempsey JL, Morley AA (1990) Damage to lymphocytes by X-ray and bleomycin measured with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique. Mutat Res 237: 147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Olinici CD, Mustea I (1978) Effect of misonidazole (Ro-07–0582) on the incidence of micronuclei in irradiated Ehrlich tumour ascites cells. Int J Radiat Biol 34: 589–593Google Scholar
  379. O’Neill FJ (1974) Complex chromosome aberrations in continuous mammalian cell lines. Chromosoma 47: 453–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. O’Neill FJ, Rapp F (1971) Premature chromosome condensation in hamster cells treated with cytochalasin B. Exp Cell Res 70: 226–229Google Scholar
  381. Ong T, Whong WZ, Xu J, Burchell B, Green FH, Lewis T (1985) Genotoxicity studies of rodents exposed to coal dust and diesel emission particulates. Environ Res 37: 399–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Ono K, Wandl E, Tsutsui K, Sasai K, Abe M (1989a) The correlation between cell survival curve and dose response curve of micronucleus ( MN) frequency. Strahlenther Onkol 165: 824–827Google Scholar
  383. Ono K, Fushiki M, Nagata Y, Tsutsui K, Sasai K, Takahashi M, Abe M (1989b) Combined effects of radiation and IUdR on experimental liver tumors and hepatocytes. Strahlenther Onkol 165: 688–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. Ono K, Nagata Y, Akuta K, Abe M, Ando K, Koike S (1990) Frequency of micronuclei in hepatocytes following X and fast-neutron irradiations — an analysis by a linear-quadratic model. Radiat Res 123: 345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Ornaghi F, Giavini E (1989) Induction of micronuclei in pre-implantation rat embryos in vivo. Mutat Res 225: 71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Osanto S, Thijssen JC, Woldering VM, van Rijn JL, Natarajan AT, Tates AD (1991) Increased frequency of chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes up to nine years following curative chemotherapy of patients with testicular carcinoma. Environ Mol Mutagen 17: 71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Pampfer S, Streffer C (1989) Increased chromosome aberration levels in cells from mouse fetuses after zygote X-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol 55: 85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Pampfer S, Streffer C, Müller W-U (1989) Micronucleus formation in 2-cell embryos after in vitro X-irradiation of mouse spermatozoa. Mutat Res 210: 191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Pampfer S, Müller W-U, Streffer C (1992) Preimplantation growth delay and micronucleus formation after in vivo exposure of mouse zygotes to fast neutrons. Radiat Res 129:88–95Google Scholar
  390. Parton JW, Garriott ML, Beyers JE (1991) Expulsion of demecolcine-induced micronuclei from mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen 17: 79–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Parvez Z, Kormano M, Moncada R, Eklund R (1986) Contrast media-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocyte cultures. Invest Radiol 21:864–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Parvez Z, Kormano M, Satokari K, Moncada R, Eklund R (1987) Induction of mitotic micronuclei by X-ray contrast media in human peripheral lymphocytes. Mutat Res 188: 233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Parvinen M, Landetie J, Parvinen LM (1984) Toxic and mutagenic influences on spermatogenesis. Arch Toxicol Suppl 7: 128–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Pascoe S, Gatehouse D (1986) The use of a simple haematoxylin and eosin staining procedure to demonstrate micronuclei within rodent bone marrow. Mutat Res 164: 237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Pascoe SA, Stemp G (1990) A modified method and staining technique for the in vitro micronucleus test in human lymphocytes using cytochalasin B. Mutat Res 234:253–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Peters LJ, Hopwood LE, Withers HR, Suit HD (1984) Predictive assays of tumor radiocurability. Cancer Treat Symp 1: 67–74Google Scholar
  397. Peters LJ, Brock W, Johnson T (1985) Predicting radiocurability. Cancer 55: 2118–2122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. Peters LJ, Brock WA, Chapman JD, Wilson G (1988) Predictive assays of tumorradiocurability. Am J Clin Oncol 11: 275–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Phillips SG, Phillips DM (1969) Sites of nucleolus production in cultured Chinese hamster cells. J Cell Biol 40: 248–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Phillips SG, Phillips DM (1979) Nucleolus-like bodies in micronuclei of cultured Xenopus cells. Exp Cell Res 120: 295–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Picker JD, Fox DP (1986) Do curried foods produce micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells? Mutat Res 171: 185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Pincu M, Bass D, Norman A (1984) An improved micronuclear assay in lymphocytes. Mutat Res 139: 61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. Pincu M, Callisen H, Norman A (1985) DNA content of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 47: 423–432Google Scholar
  404. Popp R, Schimmer 0 (1991) Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), polyploidy, and micronuclei by plant flavonoids in human lymphocyte cultures. A comparative study of 19 flavonoids. Mutat Res 246: 205–213Google Scholar
  405. Porter AJ, Singh SM (1988) Transplacental teratogenesis and mutagenesis in mouse fetuses treated with cyclophosphamide. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 8: 191–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Potten CS (1977) Extreme sensitivity of small intestinal crypt cells to X- and gamma-irradiation. Nature 269: 518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Prosser JS, Moguet JE, Lloyd DC, Edwards AA (1988) Radiation induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 199: 37–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. Purchase IFH, Clayson DB, Preussmann R, Tomatis L (1981a) Activity of 42 compounds in animal carcinogenicity studies. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 21–32Google Scholar
  409. Purchase IFH, Ray V, Heddle J, Kirkhart B, Latt SA, Salamone M, Topham J, Tsuchimoto T, Valencia R, Vogel EM, Wurgler FE, Wyrobek A (1981b) Summary report on the performance of in vivo assays. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 86–95Google Scholar
  410. Pylkkanen L, Salonen I (1987) Concomitant mutagenicity of ethanol and X-ray irradiation in the mouse male germ cells. Alcohol 4: 401–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Raj AS, Heddle JA (1980) The effect of superoxide dismutase, catalase and L-cysteine on spontaneous and on mitomycin C induced chromosomal breakage in Fanconi’s anemia and normal fibroblasts as measured by the micronucleus method. Mutat Res 78: 59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Raj AS, Katz M (1984) Corn oil and its minor constituents as inhibitors of DMBA-induced chromosomal breaks in vivo. Mutat Res 136: 247–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Raj AS, Katz M (1985) Beta-carotene as an inhibitor of benzo(a)pyrene and mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breaks in the bone marrow of mice. Can J Genet Cytol 27: 598–602Google Scholar
  414. Ramalho A, Sunjevaric I, Natarajan AT (1988) Use of the frequencies of micronuclei as quantitative indicators of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: comparison of two methods. Mutat Res 207: 141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Read J, Kihlman BA (1956) Comparison of 8-ethoxycaffeine and X-rays on the cytology and growth of roots of Vicia faba. Hereditas 42: 487–507Google Scholar
  416. Reali D, Di-Marino F, Bahramandpour S, Carducci A, Barale R, Loprieno N (1987) Micronuclei in exfoliated urothelial cells and urine mutagenicity in smokers. Mutat Res 192: 145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Reddy MM, Goh KO, Hempelmann LH (1980) Induction of micronuclei in PHA-stimulated human lymphocyte cultures by therapeutic radiation. Experientia 36: 343–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Ren L, Yang JP, Zhang HX (1991) Use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in mouse splenocytes. Mutat Res 262: 119–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Rimoldi D, Miller AC, Freeman SE, Samid D (1991) DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to excimer laser radiation. J Invest Dermatol 96: 898–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Rithidech K, Au WW, Ramanujam VM, Whorton EB Jr, Legator MS (1988) Persistence of micronuclei in peripheral blood normochromatic erythrocytes of subchronically benzene-treated male mice. Environ Mol Mutagen 12: 319–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. Rizzoni M, Vitagliano E, Marconi MC, Sottili A, Gustavino B (1987) Micronucleus induction by low doses of X-rays in Vicia faba root tips. Mutat Res 176: 205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Roberts CJ, Morgan GR, Holt PD (1986) A critical comparison of the micronucleus yield from high and low LET irradiation of plateau-phase cell populations. Mutat Res 160:237–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. Rofstad EK, Falkvoll KH, Oftedal P (1984) Micronucleus formation in human melanoma xenografts following exposure to hyperthermia. Radiat Environ Biophys 23:51–60Google Scholar
  424. Romagna F, Staniforth CD (1989) The automated bone marrow micronucleus test. Mutat Res 213:91–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Ronen A, Heddle JA (1984) Site-specific induction of nuclear anomalies (apoptotic bodies and micronuclei) by carcinogens in mice. Cancer Res 44: 1536–1540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Roser M, Frenzer S, Schmidt-Preuss U, Reimers U, Weichenthal M, Breitbart EW, Rüdiger HW (1989) Chromosomale Instabilität bei Patienten mit malignem Melanom der Haut. Onkologie 12: 286–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. Rosin MP, German J (1985) Evidence for chromosome instability in vivo in Bloom syndrome: increased numbers of micronuclei in exfoliated cells. Hum Genet 71:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Rosin MP, Ochs HD (1986) In vivo chromosomal instability in ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes. Hum Genet 74:335–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Rosin MP, Dunn BP, Stich HF (1987) Use of intermediate endpoints in quantitating the response of precancerous lesions to chemopreventive agents. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 65: 483–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Rosin MP, Ochs HD, Gatti RA, Boder E (1989) Heterogeneity of chromosomal breakage levels in epithelial tissue of ataxia-telangiectasia homozygotes and heterozygotes. Hum Genet 83: 133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Rudd NL, Hoar DI, Martin RH, Kemp D, Dimnik L (1984) Factors distinguishing couples at risk for nondisjunction. Can J Genet Cytol 26: 595–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Rudd NL, Hoar DI, Greentree CL, Dimnik LS, Hennig UG (1988) Micronucleus assay in human fibroblasts: a measure of spontaneous chromosomal instability and mutagen hypersensitivity. Environ Mol Mutagen 12: 3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Rudd NL, Hoar DI, Williams SE, Hennig UG (1989) Genotype and the cryopreservation process affect the levels of aneuploidy and chromosome breakage in cultured human fibroblasts. Genome 32: 196–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Russell LB (1962) Chromosome aberrations in experimental mammals. In: Steinberg AG, Beam AG (eds) Progress in medical genetics, vol 2. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 230–294Google Scholar
  435. Saito H, Berger T, Mishell DR Jr, Marrs RP (1984a) The effect of serum fractions on embryo growth. Fertil Steril 41: 761–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Saito H, Berger T, Mishell DR Jr, Marrs RP (1984b) Effect of variable concentration of serum on mouse embryo development. Fertil Steril 41: 460–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Salamone MF, Heddle JA (1983) The bone marrow micronucleus assay: Rationale for a revised protocol. In: de Serres FJ, Hollaender A (eds) Chemical mutagens, principles and methods for their detection, vol 8. Plenum Press, New York, pp 111–151Google Scholar
  438. Salamone M, Heddle J, Stuart E, Katz M (1980) Towards an improved micronucleus test. Studies on 3 model agents, mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide and dimethylbenzanthracene. Mutat Res 74: 347–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Salamone MF, Heddle JA, Katz M (1981) Mutagenic activity of 41 compounds in the in vivo micronucleus assay. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 686–697Google Scholar
  440. Salassidis K, Huber R, Zitzelsberger H, Bauchinger M (1992) Centromere detection in vinblastine-and radiation-induced micronuclei of cytokinesis-blocked mouse cells by using in situ hybridization with a mouse gamma (major) satellite DNA probe. Environm Mol Mutagen 19: 1–6Google Scholar
  441. Sandberg AA (1983) A chromosomal hypothesis of oncogenesis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 8: 277–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. Sarto F, Finotto S, Giacomelli L, Mazzotti D, Tomanin R, Levis AG (1987) The micronucleus assay in exfoliated cells of the human buccal mucosa. Mutagenesis 2: 11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Sasaki MS, Norman A (1967) Selection against chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Nature 214: 502–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Sathananthan AH, Trounson A, Freeman L (1987) Morphology and fertilizability of frozen human oocytes. Gamete Res 16: 343–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Sathananthan AH, Ng SC, Trounson AO, Bongso A, Ratnam SS, Ho J, Mok H, Lee MN (1988) The effects of ultrarapid freezing on meiotic and mitotic spindles of mouse oocytes and embryos. Gamete Res 21: 385–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Sathananthan H, Bongso A, Ng SC, Ho J, Mok H, Ratnam S (1990) Ultrastructure of preimplantation human embryos co-cultured with human ampullary cells. Hum Reprod 5: 309–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. Savage JRK (1988) A comment on the quantitative and qualitative relationship between micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations. Mutat Res 207: 33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Savage JRK (1989) Acentric chromosomal fragments and micronuclei: the time-displacement factor. Mutat Res 225: 171–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. Sayer AM, Littlefield LG, Frome EL, Kholeif SF, Ismail SR (1988) Dose response parameters for X-ray-induced micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen 11: 91 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  450. Scappaticci S, Cerimele D, Tondi M, Vivarelli R, Fois A, Fraccaro M (1988) Chromosome abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis. Hum Genet 79: 151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. Scarfi MR, Cossarizza A, Monti D, Bersani F, Zannotti M, Lioi MB, Franceschi C (1990) Age-related increase of mitomycin C-induced micronuclei in lymphocytes from Down’s syndrome subjects. Mutat Res 237: 247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Scarfi MR, Bersani F, Cossarizza A, Monti D, Castellani G, Cadossi R, Franceschetti G, Franceschi C (1991) Spontaneous and mitomycin-C-induced micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic fields. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 176: 194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Schaeffer DJ, Kerster HW (1987) Estimating mutagen mass in indeterminate mixtures: micronuclei in Tradescantia. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 14: 30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Schlegel R, MacGregor JT (1982) The persistence of micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes: detection of chronic chromosome breakage in mice. Mutat Res 104: 367–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. Schlegel R, MacGregor JT (1983) A rapid screen for cumulative chromosomal damage in mice: accumulation of circulating micronucleated erythocytes. Mutat Res 113: 481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Schlegel R, MacGregor JT (1984) The persistence of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral circulation of normal and splenectomized Fischer 344 rats: implications for cytogenetic screening. Mutat Res 127: 169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. Schmid G, Pfitzer P (1985) Mitoses and binucleated cells in perinatal human hearts. Virchows Arch B 48: 59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Schmid W (1975) The micronucleus test. Mutat Res 31: 9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Schmid W (1976) The micronucleus test for cytogenetic analysis. In: Hollaender A (ed) Chemical mutagens, principles and methods for their detection, vol 4, Plenum Press, New York, pp 31–53Google Scholar
  460. Schmid W (1982) The micronucleus test: An in vivo bone marrow method. In: Hsu TC (ed) Cytogenetic assays of environmental mutagens. Allenheld, Osmun + Co, Totowa, NJ, pp 221–229Google Scholar
  461. Schmidt-Preuss U, Roser M, Weichenthal M, Rüdiger HW (1990) Elevated frequencies of micronuclei in cultured fibroblasts after freezing and thawing. Mutat Res 241:279–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Schmuck G, Lieb G, Wild D, Schiffmann D, Henschler D (1988) Characterization of an in vitro micronucleus assay with Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts. Mutat Res 203:397–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Schreiber GA, Beisker W, Bauchinger M, Nüsse M (1992) Multiparametric flow cytometric analysis of radiation-induced micronuclei in mammalian cell cultures. Cytometry 13:90Google Scholar
  464. Schreinemachers DM, Everson RB (1991) Effect of residual splenic function and folate levels on the frequency of micronucleated red blood cells in splenectomized humans. Mutat Res 263: 63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Scott BR (1991) Hazard functions for estimating whole-body doses of ionizing radiation from chromosomal damage. Rad Protect Dosim 37: 103–109Google Scholar
  466. Seiler JP (1976) The mutagenicity of benzimidazole and benzimidazole derivatives. VI. Cytogenetic effects of benzimidazole derivatives in the bone marrow of the mouse and the Chinese hamster. Mutat Res 40: 339–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. Sekiguchi T, Shelton K, Ringertz NR (1978) DNA content of microcells prepared from rat kangaroo and mouse cells. Exp Cell Res 113: 247–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Selig C, Schlegelmilch R, Wolf HU (1990) Development of a method to increase the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes from mouse bone marrow for more rapid evaluation of the micronucleus assay. Comparison with the conventional method with respect to micronucleus frequency and time required for preparation and evaluation. Mutat Res 234: 23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. Sen S, Hittelman WN, Teeter LD, Kuo MT (1989) Model for the formation of double minutes from prematurely condensed chromosomes of replicating micronuclei in drug-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells undergoing DNA amplification. Cancer Res 49:6731–6737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. Shelby MD (1987) The genetic toxicity of human carcinogens and its implications The mouse bone-marrow micronucleus assay protocol. Mutat Res 189:187Google Scholar
  471. Shelby MD (1988) The genetic toxicity of human carcinogens and its implications. Mutat Res 204:3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Shelby MD, Purchase IFH (1981) Assay systems and criteria for their comparisons. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term-tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 16–20Google Scholar
  473. Shibamoto Y, Streffer C, Fuhrmann C, Budach V (1991) Tumor radiosensitivity prediction by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Radiat Res 128: 293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Shidnia H, Crabtree W, Hornback N, Young P, Hartson M, Shen RN (1990) Micronuclei assay a predictive variable for tumor response to treatment. Adv Exp Med Biol 267:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Shimizu M, Yano E (1987) Mutagenicity of instant coffee and its interaction with dimethylnitrosamine in the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 189:307–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Singh SM, Toles JF, Reaume J (1986) Genotype-and age-associated in vivo cytogenetic alterations following mutagenic exposures in mice. Can J Genet Cytol 28:286–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Slavutsky I, Knuutila S (1989) Micronucleus formation in different lymphocyte subpopulations in peplomycin-treated and control cultures. Mutat Res 219:257–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1967) Statistical methods, 6th edn. Iowa State Press, Ames, IOGoogle Scholar
  479. Sorsa M, Pyy L, Salomaa S, Nylund L, Yager JW (1988) Biological and environmental monitoring of occupational exposure to cyclophosphamide in industry and hospitals. Mutat Res 204: 465–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Sorsa M, Ojajarvi A, Salomaa S (1990) Cytogenetic surveillance of workers exposed to genotoxic chemicals: preliminary experience from a prospective cancer study in a cytogenetic cohort. Teratogen Carcinog Mutagen 10:215–221Google Scholar
  481. Sperling K, Rao PN (1974) The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation: its relevance to basic and applied research. Humangenetik 23: 235–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Stap J, Aten JA (1990) Comparison of radiation sensitivity for three cell lines as measured by the cloning assay and the micro-nucleus test. Strahlenther Onkol 166:761–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Steinheider G, Neth R, Marquardt H (1985) Evaluation of nongenotoxic and genotoxic factors modulating the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of mice. Cell Biol Toxicol 1:197–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Stenstrand K (1985) Effects of ionizing radiation on chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers. Hereditas 102: 7176Google Scholar
  485. Stenstrand K, Larsen JK, Wulf HC, Lange-Wantzin G (1987) Effects of 254 nm UV irradiation of human lymphocytes in vitro studied on chromosomes, cell cycle phase distribution and cell surface antigens. Photodermatol 4: 36–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. Sternes KL, Vig BK (1989) Micronuclei, kinetochores and hypoploidy: Tests with some agents. Mutagenesis 4: 425–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  487. Stich HF (1987) Micronucleated exfoliated cells as indicators for genotoxic damage and as markers in chemoprevention trials. J Nutr Growth Cancer 4: 9–18Google Scholar
  488. Stich HF, Rosin MP (1984) Micronuclei in exfoliated human cells as a tool for studies in cancer risk and cancer intervention. Cancer Lett 22: 241–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. Stich HF, Rosin MP (1985) Towards a more comprehensive evaluation of a genotoxic hazard in man. Mutat Res 150: 43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. Stich HF, Curtis JR, Parida BB (1982a) Application of the micronucleus test to exfoliated cells of high cancer risk groups: tobacco chewers. Int J Cancer 30: 553–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. Stich HF, Curtis JR, Parida BB (1982b) Elevated frequency of micronucleated cells in the buccal mucosa of individuals at high risk for oral cancer: betel quid chewers. Cancer Lett 17: 125–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. Stich HF, Stich W, Rosin MP, Vallejera MO (1984) Use of the micronucleus test to monitor the effect of vitamin A, beta-carotene and canthaxanthin on the buccal mucosa of betel nut/tobacco chewers. Int J Cancer 34: 745–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. Stich HF, Stich W, Rosin MP (1985) The micronucleus test on exfoliated human cells. Basic Life Sci 34: 337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Brunnemann KD (1986) Oral lesions, genotoxicity and nitrosamines in betel quid chewers with no obvious increase in oral cancer risk. Cancer Lett 31: 15–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Stich HF, Rosin MP, Hornby AP, Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair MK (1988) Remission of oral leukoplakias and micronuclei in tobacco/betel quid chewers treated with beta-carotene and with beta-carotene plus vitamin A. int J Cancer 42: 195–199Google Scholar
  496. Stich HF, Acton AB, Palcic B (1990) Towards an automated micronucleus assay as an internal dosimeter for carcinogen-exposed human population groups. Recent Results Cancer Res 120: 94–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Stich HF, Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair MK (1991) Remission of oral precancerous lesions of tobacco/areca nut chewers following administration of beta-carotene or vitamin A, and maintenance of the protective effect. Cancer Detect Prey 15:93–98Google Scholar
  498. Stoyel CJ, Clark AM (1980) The transplacental micronucleus test. Mutat Res 74:393–398Google Scholar
  499. Straume T, Lucas JN, Tucker JD, Bigbee WL, Langlois RG (1992) Biodosimetry for a radiation worker using multiple assays. Health Phys 62:122–130Google Scholar
  500. Streffer C (1989) Predictive assays for the individualization of tumour therapy. In: Bannasch P(ed) Cancer therapy — new trends. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 163–169Google Scholar
  501. Streffer C, Müller W-U (1984) Radiation risk from combined exposures to ionizing radiations and chemicals. Adv Radiat Biol 11:173–210Google Scholar
  502. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Molls M, Pon A, Schulz S, Zamboglou N (1978) In vitro culture of pre-implanted mouse embryos. A model system for studying combined effects. In: Late Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, vol II. Int Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, IAEA-SM-224/801, pp 381–396Google Scholar
  503. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Molls M (1982) Possibilities of the micronuclei’s test as an assay in radiotherapy. In: Kärcher KH (ed) Progress in radio-oncology II. Raven Press, New York, pp 243–251Google Scholar
  504. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Bamberg M, Eigler F-W, Gross E, Schabronath J (1984a) An approach to the individualization of cancer therapy — determination of DNA, SH-groups and micronuclei. Strahlentherapie 160: 661–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Bamberg M (1984b) Cell proliferation and micronuclei in human brain tumours. Verh Dtsch Krebs Ges 5: 235–239Google Scholar
  506. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Rebmann A (1985) DNA measurements and micronuclei in human rectal carcinoma. Radiat Med 3: 147–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Gross E, Schabronath J, Eigler F-W, Rebmann A (1986) Predictive assays for the therapy of rectum carcinoma. Radiother Oncol 5:303–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Mlynek M-L, Gross E, Eigler F-W (1988) Predictive assays for the therapy of rectal carcinoma. Recent Results Cancer Res 110:274–280Google Scholar
  509. Streffer C, van Beuningen D, Gross E, Eigler F-W, Pelzer T (1989) Determination of DNA, micronuclei and vascular density in human rectum carcinomas. In: Chapman JD, Peters LT, Withers HR (eds) Prediction of tumor treatment response. Pergamon Press, New York, 217–226Google Scholar
  510. Stubblefield E (1964) DNA synthesis and chromosomal morphology of Chinese hamster cells cultured in media containing N-deacetyl-N-methylcolchicine (Colcemid). In: Harris RJC (ed) Cytogenetics of cells in culture. Academic Press, New York, pp 223–248Google Scholar
  511. Sturrock JE, Nunn JF (1979) Chromosomal damage and mutations after exposure of Chinese hamster cells to high concentrations of oxygen. Mutat Res 57: 27–33Google Scholar
  512. Styles JA, Richardson CR, Burlinson B (1983) A comparison of the incidence of micronuclei in blood and bone marrow in 3 strains of mouse dosed with cyclophosphamideor hexamethylphosphoramide ( HMPA ). Mutat Res 122: 143–147Google Scholar
  513. Sutter T, Maes J, Gerber GB, Leonard A (1985) Relation between number of hemopoietic stem cells in newborn mice and their radiosensitivity. Acta Radiol Oncol 24: 263–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Talbot RJ, Moores SR, Morgan A, Nicholls L (1986) The induction of micronuclei in mouse pulmonary alveolar macrophages by inhaled alpha-emitting 239-Pu02. Br J Cancer Suppl 7: 340–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Talbot RJ, Nicholls L, Morgan A, Moores SR (1989) Effect of inhaled alpha-emitting nuclides on mouse alveolar macrophages. Radiat Res 119: 271–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Tamura RN, Garriott ML, Parton JW (1990) Pooled inference across sexes for the in vivo micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 240: 127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Tanaka K, Izumi T, Ohkita T, Kamada N (1984) Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations found in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes from thorotrast patients and atomic bomb survivors. Hiroshima J Med Sci 33: 101–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  518. Tates AD, de Boer P (1984) Further evaluation of a micronucleus method for detection of meiotic micronuclei in male germ cells of mammals. Mutat Res 140: 187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  519. Tates AD, Neuteboom I, Hofker M, den Engelse L (1980a) A micronucleus technique for detecting clastogenic effects of mutagens/carcinogens (DEN, DMN) in hepatocytes of rat liver in vivo. Mutat Res 74: 11–20Google Scholar
  520. Tates AD, de Vogel N, Neuteboom I (1980b) Cytogenetic effects in hepatocytes, bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of rats exposed to ethanol in the drinking water. Mutat Res 79: 285–288Google Scholar
  521. Tates AD, Neuteboom I, de Vogel N, den Engelse L (1983) The induction of chromosomal damage in rat hepatocytes and lymphocytes. Mutat Res 107: 131–151Google Scholar
  522. Tates AD, van Welie MT, Ploem JS (1990) The present state of the automated micronucleus test for lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 58: 813–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Teerenhovi L, Lintula R, Ruutu T, Knuutila S (1987) Correlation between bone marrow karyotype and the occurrence of erythroblast micronuclei and nuclear budding in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol 39: 237–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Thierens H, Vral A, deRidder L (1991) Biological dosimetry using the micronucleus assay for lymphocytes: interindividual differences in dose response. Health Phys 61: 623–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. Thomson EJ, Perry PE (1988) The identification of micronucleated chromosomes: a possible assay for aneuploidy. Mutagenesis 3: 415–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Tice RR, Erexson GL, Shelby MD (1990a) The induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice using single and multiple treatments. Mutat Res 234: 187–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Tice RR, Erexson GL, Hilliard CJ, Huston JL, Boehm RM, Gulati D, Shelby MD (1990b) Effect of treatment protocol and sample time on the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood. Mutagenesis 5: 313–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. Tomanin R, Sarto F, Mazzotti D, Giacomelli L, Raimondi F, Trevisan C (1990) Louis-Bar syndrome: spontaneous and induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and micronuclei in lymphocytes, oral mucosa and hair root cells. Hum Genet 85: 31–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. Tometsko AM, Leary JF (1990) A peripheral blood micronucleus assay based on flow cytometry. Cytometry (Suppl) 4: 35 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  530. Tommerup N (1984) Idoxuridine induction of micronuclei containing the long or short arms of human chromosome 9. Cytogenet Cell Genet 38: 92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Toppari J, Lähdetie J, Harkonen P, Eerola E, Parvinen M (1986) Mutagen effects on rat seminiferous tubules in vitro: induction of meiotic micronuclei by adriamycin. Mutat Res 171: 149–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Toth S, Csaba G (1988) Gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine ( Litoralon) prevents the micronucleus formation induced by mitomycin C. Mutat Res 209: 85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. Trzos RJ, Petzold GL, Brunden MN, Swenberg JA (1978) The evaluation of sixteen carcinogens in the rat using the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 58: 79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Tsuchimoto T, Matter BE (1979) In vivo cytogenetic screening methods for mutagens, with special reference to the micronucleus test. Arch Toxicol 42: 239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  535. Tsuchimoto T, Matter BE (1981) Activity of coded compounds in the micronucleus test. In: de Serres FJ, Ashby J (eds) Evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens. Progress in mutation research, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 705–711Google Scholar
  536. Tsui Y-C, Creasy MR, Hulten MA (1983) The effect of the male contraceptive agent Gossypol on human lymphocytes in vitro: traditional chromosome breakage, micronuclei, sister chromatid exchange and cell kinetics. J Med Genet 20: 81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Tucker JD, Eastmond DA (1990) Use of an antikinetochore antibody to discriminate between micronuclei induced by aneuploidogens and clastogens. In: Mendelsohn ML, Albertini RJ (eds) Mutation and the environment, Part B: Metabolism, testing methods, and chromosomes. Progress in clinical and biological research, vol 340B. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 275–284Google Scholar
  538. Uma-Devi P, Sharma AS (1990) Mouse bone-marrow response to low doses of whole-body gamma irradiation: induction of micronuclei. Int J Radiat Biol 57: 97–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Urlando C, Heddle JA (1990) On the differential responsiveness of males and females in the micronucleus assay. Mutat Res 234: 199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. van Beuningen D, Streffer C, Bertholdt G (1981) Mikronukleusbildung im Vergleich zur Überlebensrate von menschlichen Melanomzellen nach Röntgen-, Neutronenbestrahlung und Hyperthermie. Strahlentherapie 157: 600–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. van Buul PP, Tuinenburg-Bolraap A, Searle AG, Natarajan AT (1987) A search for radiosensitive mouse mutants by use of the micronucleus technique. Mutat Res 191: 163–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. Vanderkerken K, Vanparys P, Verschaeve L, Kirsch-Volders M (1989) The mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay can be used to distinguish aneugens from clastogens. Mutagenesis 4: 6–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Van Hummelen P, Kirsch-Volders M (1990) An improved method for the in vitro micronucleus test using human lymphocytes. Mutagenesis 5: 203–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Vanparys P, Vermeiren F, Sysmans M, Temmerman R (1990) The micronucleus assay as a test for the detection of aneugenic activity. Mutat Res 244: 95–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. van Pelt FN, Haring RM, Overkamp MJ, Weterings PJ (1991) Micronucleus formation in cultured human keratinocytes following exposure to mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide. Mutat Res 252: 45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Verschaeve L, Vanderkerken K, Kirsch-Volders M (1988) C-banding as a simple tool to discriminate between micronuclei induced by clastogens and aneugens. Stain Technol 63: 351–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Viaggi S, Bonatti S, Abbondandolo A (1987) New evidence for the presence of chromosomes in micronuclei of human and Chinese hamster cells. Mutagenesis 2: 367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Vig BK, Swearngin SE (1986) Sequence of centromere separation: kinetochore formation in induced laggards and micronuclei. Mutagenesis 1: 461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Vogel R, Spielmann H (1986) Increased sister-chromatid exchange frequency in preimplantation mouse embryos after maternal cyclophosphamide treatment before implantation. Toxicol Lett 32: 81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. von Ledebur M, Schmid W (1973) The micronucleus test, methodological aspects. Mutat Res 19: 109–117Google Scholar
  551. Wagner ED, Plewa MJ (1985) Induction of micronuclei in maize root-tip cells and a correlation with forward mutation at the yg2 locus. Environ Mutagen 7: 821–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. Wakata A, Sasaki MS (1987) Measurement of micronuclei by cytokinesis-block method in cultured Chinese hamster cells: Comparison with types and rates of chromosome damage. Mutat Res 190: 51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. Walton DG, Acton AB, Stich HF (1984) Comparison of DNA repair synthesis, chromosome aberrations and induction of micronuclei in cultured human fibroblasts, Chinese hamster ovary and central mudminnow (Umbra limi) cells exposed to chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 129: 129–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. Wandl EO, Ono K, Kain R, Herbsthofer T, Hienert G, Höbarth K (1989) Linear correlation between surviving fraction and the micronucleus frequency. Int J Radiat Biol 56: 771–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Wargovich MJ, Goldberg MT, Newmark HL, Bruce WR (1983) Nuclear aberrations as a short-term test for genotoxicity to the colon: evaluation of nineteen agents in mice. JNCI 71: 133–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Wargovich MJ, Eng VW, Newmark HL (1985) Inhibition by plant phenols of benzo[a]pyreneinduced nuclear aberrations in mammalian intestinal cells: a rapid in vivo assessment method. Food Chem Toxicol 23: 47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  557. Watanabe M, Honda S, Hayashi M, Matsuda T (1982) Mutagenic effects of combinations of chemical carcinogens and environmental pollutants in mice as shown by the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 97: 43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. Weichenthal M, Roser M, Ehlert U, Frenzer S, Breitbart E, Rüdiger HW (1989) Increased numbers of spontaneous micronuclei in blood lymphocytes and cultures fibroblasts of individuals with familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 115: 264–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Weissenborn U, Streffer C (1988a) Analysis of structural and numerical chromosomal anomalies at the first, second, and third mitosis after irradiation of one-cell mouse embryos with X-rays or neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol 54: 381–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. Weissenborn U, Streffer C (1988b) The one-cell mouse embryo: cell cycle-dependent radiosensitivity and development of chromosomal anomalies in postradiation cell cycles. Int J Radiat Biol 54: 659–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Weissenborn U, Streffer C (1991) Micronuclei with kinetochores in human melanoma cells and rectal carcinomas. Int J Radiat Biol 59: 373–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Wendt E (1959) Lebendbeobachtungen an bestrahlten Interphasekernen. Z Zellforsch 49: 677–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. White GR, Ockey CH, Brennand J, Margison-GP (1986) Chinese hamster cells harbouring the Escherichia coli 06-alkylguanine alkyltransferase gene are less susceptible to sister chromatid exchange induction and chromosome damage by methylating agents. Carcinogenesis 7: 2077–2080Google Scholar
  564. Wild D (1978) Cytogenetic effects in the mouse of 17 chemical mutagens and carcinogens evaluated by the micronucleus test. Mutat Res 56: 319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  565. Williams M, Brock WA (1983) Micronuclei and binucleate formation as an early indicator of radiation-induced cell killing. Radiat Res 94: 544 (Abstr)Google Scholar
  566. Willingale-Theune J, Schweiger M, Hirsch-Kauffmann M, Meek AE, Paulin-Levasseur M, Traub P (1989) Ultrastructure of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts. J Cell Sci 93: 651–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. Witkowski R, Anger H (1976) Premature chromosome condensation in irradiated man. Hum Genet 34: 65–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. Wuttke K, Streffer C, Müller W-U (1993) Radiation-induced micronuclei in subpopulations of human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 286: 181–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR (1980) Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. Int Rev Cytol 68: 251–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. Yager JW (1990) The effect of background variables on human peripheral lymphocyte micronuclei. IARC Sci Publ 1990 (104): 147–150Google Scholar
  571. Yager JW, Sorsa M, Selvin S (1988) Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes as an index of occupational exposure to alkylating cytostatic drugs. IARC Sci Publ 89: 213–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Yamamoto KI, Kikuchi Y (1980) A comparison of diameters of micronuclei induced by clastogens and by spindle poisons. Mutat Res 71: 127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. Yamamoto KI, Kikuchi Y (1981) Studies on micronuclei time response and on the effects of multiple treatments of mutagens on induction of micronuclei. Mutat Res 90:163–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Yamamoto KI, Kikuchi Y (1984) Induction of micronuclei in mouse fetal liver after exposure in utero to N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutat Res 128: 173–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Yi M, Rosin MP, Anderson CK (1990) Response of fibroblast cultures from ataxiatelangiectasia patients to oxidative stress. Cancer Lett 54: 43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Yin XJ, Liu DX, Wang HC, Zhou Y (1991) A study on the mutagenicity of 102 raw pharmaceuticals used in Chinese traditional medicine. Mutat Res 260: 73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  577. Zamboglou N, Wurm R, Pape H, Schnabel TH, Kuhn FP, Streffer C, Schmitt G (1991) Simultaneous radiotherapy and intratumoral instillation of mitoxantrone in locoregional recurrence of head and neck carcinoma. Reg Cancer Treat 4: 79–84Google Scholar
  578. Zambrano MA, Targa HJ, Rabello-Gay MN (1982) Physiological saline solutions as a useful tool in micronucleus and metaphase slide preparations. Stain Technol 57: 48–49PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • W.-U. Müller
    • 1
  • C. Streffer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Medizinische StrahlenbiologieUniversitätsklinikum EssenEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations