Simulation Studies for Improving the Geoid in Egypt

  • Mohamed S. Hanafy
  • Mohamed A. El Tokhey
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 112)


Least squares collocation permits the estimation of the accuracy of predicted quantities such as geoidal heights in dependence on various assumed distributions of heterogeneous data (gravity, GPS, etc.) without needing actual observations (only covariances). In addition to already available data (deflections of the vertical, gravity measurements, Doppler and GPS data), various regularly arranged additional distributions of gravity and / or GPS data were assumed and the resulting accuracy was estimated.


Gravity Anomaly Gravity Data Geoidal Height Geoid Undulation Physical Geodesy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed S. Hanafy
    • 1
  • Mohamed A. El Tokhey
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Physical GeodesyGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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