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Einfluß von Ernährungsfaktoren auf Entstehung und Verlauf der chronischen Lungenerkrankung nach Frühgeburt (BPD)

  • M. Griese
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Die Überlebenschancen von immer kleineren Frühgeburten sind in den letzten Dekaden kontinuierlich angestiegen. So lag 1970 das Gewicht, bei welchem die Hälfte der Kinder überlebte, noch bei 1100 g, während es 1992 nur etwa 700 g beträgt. Diese extrem unreifen Neugeborenen haben ein sehr hohes Risiko, eine chronische Lungenerkrankung nach Frühgeburt, die sog. bronchopulmonale Dysplasie (BPD), zu entwickeln. Deshalb hat parallel mit der verbesserten Überlebensrate auch die Inzidenz der BPD stetig zugenommen [24]. Nach allgemeiner Übereinkunft liegt dann eine BPD vor, wenn eine Sauerstoffabhängigkeit für mehr als 28 Tage nach der Geburt besteht. Der Verlauf der Erkrankung kann milde, aber auch kompliziert und langwierig sein. Während der Kindheit lassen sich mit abnehmender Ausprägung meist obstruktive Lungenfunktionsstörungen, bei einem Teil der Patienten sogar bis ins Erwachsenenalter hinein nachweisen [24]. Trotz intensiver Bemühungen in der Neonatalperiode die schädigenden Faktoren maximal zu reduzieren und protektive Mechanismen zu stärken, wurde ein entscheidender Durchbruch bei der Prävention und Therapie der BPD bisher jedoch noch nicht erzielt. Mitursache hierfür ist die multikausale Bedingtheit der Erkrankung.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

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  • M. Griese

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