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Primäre und sekundäre Unterernährung im Kindesalter und ihre Folgen für Wachstum und Entwicklung

  • R. Uauy
  • B. Koletzko
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Ein Mangel an Protein und Energie stellt für Kinder weltweit ein außerordentlich häufiges Problem dar. Protein-Energie-Malnutrition (PEM) ist eine entscheidende Ursache für die kindliche Morbidität und Mortalität in Entwicklungsländern [87, 105]. In Industriegesellschaften tritt PEM meist aufgrund von chronischen Krankheiten auf, welche die Nahrungsaufnahme und -utilisation beeinträchtigen, seltener auch durch Armut, kindliche Vernachläs-sigung und neuerdings zunehmend durch Fehlernährung bei sog. „alternativer“ Ernährung. Auch das ärztliche und klinische Vorgehen bei der Diagnostik und Behandlung einer kindlichen Erkrankung führt nicht selten zu einer ernsten Störung einer angemessenen Nahrungszufuhr, deren Bedeutung im klinischen Alltag oft unterschätzt wird. Die durch klinische Maßnahmen ausfallenden Mahlzeiten werden vielfach nicht ersetzt, obwohl hinreichend bekannt ist, daß bei vielen kindlichen Erkrankungen ein erhöhter metabolischer Bedarf besteht. Bei Patienten, die zuvor adäquat ernährt wurden und bei denen keine chronische Erkrankung vorliegt, können endogene Körperspeicher für einige Tage effektiv utilisiert werden, ohne daß dabei ein relevanter Verlust der eigentlichen Körpersubstanz auftritt.

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  • R. Uauy
  • B. Koletzko

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