Movement Takes Time: A Note on the Time of Movement

  • Waldo Tobler


Continuous transportation modelling was introduced by Martin Beckmann in 1952, and continues in some of his recent books with Tonu Puu. My own recent work has also dealt with this topic and with spatial interaction models in both continuous and discrete form, especially as related to migration. The general class of models here includes the PP/D gravity model as used by Zipf, Stewart, Warntz, Isard, and others: the entropy model introduced by Alan Wilson; the Hitchcock-Koopmans-Kantorovitch linear transportation problem, the quadratic transportation problem, and the spatial price equilibrium model described by Samuelson and later workers. In all of these problems I have constantly encountered two difficulties.


Transportation Problem Urban Traffic Spatial Interaction Model Employee Number Discrete Choice Analysis 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waldo Tobler

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