A Systems View of Infrastructure Planning
The planning role of the Swedish municipalities is especially pronounced for the built and natural environments. In these areas there is no mixture among service production and planning roles as in several other fields of municipal activity The Planning and Building Act, and its concurrent Act for The Preservation of Natural Resources, call for comprehensive planning of the local environment, be it built or natural, as a central municipal concern in Sweden. Thus, the acts do not refer in any special form to the service production roles of the municipalities. The planning role is clearly distinguished from the other roles. The municipalities have a plan monopoly but not a planning monopoly. The implication of this is that the municipalities must decide about plans for the physical environment for there to be legally binding statements made about building permits, preservation clauses, and clearances to start building activities. The fact that there is no planning monopoly has generated an opening for the private sector to challenge the planning role of the municipalities through coordinated initiatives to plan, construct, and finance urban building projects as office complexes, shopping malls, and transportation infrastructures.
KeywordsEurope Transportation Pyramid Arena Conglomerate
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