Advertisement

Perception of Images

  • William F. Schreiber
Part of the Springer Series in Information Sciences book series (SSINF, volume 15)

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the reader to those aspects of human vision that are pertinent to the understanding and design of man-made image processing systems. As far as possible, we shall concern ourselves with psychophysics, i.e., the response of observers to visual stimuli, and shall avoid, wherever possible, inferring response from physiology, i.e., the structure of the visual apparatus. We shall even more assiduously avoid inferring structure from psychophysical data. In a few cases where the connection between psychophysics and physiology is well understood, it may be discussed to simplify understanding or just because it is interesting.

Keywords

Spatial Frequency Contrast Sensitivity Adaptation Level Motion Picture Background Luminance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 3.1
    S.S. Stevens: Handbook of Experimental Psychology (Wiley, New York 1951)Google Scholar
  2. 3.2
    T.N. Cornsweet: Visual Perception (Academic, New York 1970)Google Scholar
  3. 3.3
    S. Hecht: “Quantum Relations of Vision,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 32, 42 (1942)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.4
    A. Rose: Vision: Human and Electronic (Plenum, New York 1973)Google Scholar
  5. 3.5
    M.E. Chevreul: Laws of Color Contrast (Routledge, London, 1868; Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, 1889; Reinhold, New York, 1967) (first published 1839). This excellent book is an example of the extent to which detailed knowledge about human vision was available long before the advent of modern technology.Google Scholar
  6. 3.6
    Koenig and Brodhun data (1884), quoted by S. Hecht: J. Gen. Physiol. 7, 421 (1924)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.7
    R.M. Evans: The Perception of Color (Wiley, New York 1975); “Fluorescence and Gray Content of Surface Colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1049–1059 (1959)Google Scholar
  8. 3.8
    S.M. Newhall: “Preliminary Report of the O.S.A. Subcommittee on the Spacing of the Minisell Colors”, J. Opt Soc. Am. 30, 617 (1940)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 3.9
    R.M. Evans: An Introduction to Color (Wiley, New York 1948)Google Scholar
  10. 3.9a
    G. Wyszecki, W.S. Stiles: Color Science (Wiley, New York 1967) pp. 451–453Google Scholar
  11. 3.9b
    B.C.J. Bartleson, E.J. Breneman: “Brightness Perception in Complex Fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 953–957 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 3.10
    B. Hashizume: “Companding in Image Processing,” B.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department (1973)Google Scholar
  13. 3.10a
    U. Malone: “New Data on Noise Visibility,” M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department (1977)Google Scholar
  14. 3.11
    W.F. Schreiber. “Image Processing for Quality Improvement,” Proc. IEEE 66 (12), 1640–1651 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 3.12
    D.H. Kelly: “Theory of Flicker and Transient Responses, I: Uniform Fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61 (4), 537–546 (1971); “Adaptation Effects on Spatio-temporal Sine-wave Thresholds,” Vision Res. 12, 89–101 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 3.13
    E.M. Lowry, J.J. DePalma: “Sine Wave Response of the Visual System: I. The Mach Phenomenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51 (7), 740–746 (1961); “Sine Wave Response of the Visual System: II. Sine Wave and Square Wave Contrast Sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52 (3), 328–335 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 3.14
    D.H. Kelly: “Theory of Flicker and Transient Response, II: Counterphase Gratings,” J. Opt Soc. Am. 61 (5), 632–640 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 3.15
    O.R. Mitchell: “The Effect of Spatial Frequency on the Visibility of Unstructured Spatial Patterns,” Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department (1972)Google Scholar
  19. 3.16
    A. Rosenfeld, A.C. Kak: Digital Picture Processing (Academic, New York 1976), Chaps. 6 and 7Google Scholar
  20. 3.17
    D.H. Kelly: “Image-Processing Experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61 (10), 1095–1101 (1971)Google Scholar
  21. 3.18
    D.E. Troxel, W. Schreiber, C. Seitz: “Wirephoto Standards Converter,” IEEE Trans. COM-17 (5), 544–553 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 3.19
    W.F. Schreiber: “Wirephoto Quality Improvement by Unsharp Masking,” Pattern Recognition 2, 117–121 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 3.20
    J.A.C. Yule: Principles of Color Reproduction (Wiley, New York 1967) p. 74Google Scholar
  24. 3.21
    R.M. Evans: “Sharpness and Contrast in Projected Pictures,” presented at the 1956 SMPTE Convention, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  25. 3.22
    D.H. Kelly: Private communicationGoogle Scholar
  26. 3.23
    G. Sperling: “Temporal and Spatial Visual Masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 541–559 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 3.24
    O. Braddick et al.: “Channels in Vision: Basic Aspects,” in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. 8, ed. by R. Held, H.W. Leibowitz, H.L. Teubner (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1978)Google Scholar
  28. 3.25
    A.N. Netravali, B. Prasada: “Adaptive Quantization of Picture Signals Using Spatial Masking,” Proc. IEEE 65 (4), 536–548 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 3.26
    W.F. Schreiber, R.R. Buckley: “A Two-Channel Picture Coding System: II-Adaptive Companding and Color Coding,” IEEE Trans. COM-29 (12), 1849–1858 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 3.27
    A.J. Seyler, Z. Boudrikis: “Detail Perception After Scene Changes in TV,” IEEE Trans. IT-11, 31–43 (1965)Google Scholar
  31. 3.28
    W.F. Glenn: “Compatible Transmission of HDTV Using Bandwidth Reduction,” videotape demonstration (Nati. Assn. of Broadcasters, Las Vegas, April 12, 1983)Google Scholar
  32. 3.29
    L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J.C. Cornsweet, T.N. Cornsweet: “The Disappearanceof Steadily Fixated Test Objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495–501 (1953)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 3.30
    R. Fielding (ed.): A Technological History of Motion Pictures and Television (University of California, Berkeley 1967, 1983)Google Scholar
  34. 3.31
    R.A. Kinchla, L.G. Allan: “A Theory of Visual Movement Perception,” Psychol. Rev. 76, 537–558 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 3.32
    J. Korein, N. Badlen “Temporal Anti-Aliasing in Computer Generated Animation,” Comput. Graph. 17 (3), 377–388 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 3.33
    Association for Computing Machinery, MOTION: Representation and Perception, SIGGRAPH/SIGART Interdisciplinary Workshop, Toronto, April 4–6, 1983. See especially A.B. Watson, AJ. Ahumada, “A Look at Motion in the Frequency Domain,” pp. 1–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • William F. Schreiber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations