Modulation Equations for Nearly Integrable PDEs with Periodic Boundary Conditions

  • M. G. Forest
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Nonlinear Dynamics book series (SSNONLINEAR)


This note, following my lecture, is a summary of the current state of practical application of periodic, N-phase modulation equations. First, I sketched interesting bifurcation phenomena that have been documented in [1] through extensive direct numerical investigations. These long-lived “attractors” of the damped, driven periodic sine-Gordon equation consist of various flows among coherent spatial structures. The temporal behavior ranges from periodic to quasiperiodic to chaotic, quantified in terms of several diagnostics. The spatial resolution during each flow is coherent and low-dimensional. In addition to Fourier projections, we use the sine-Gordon spectral transform to independently measure the “N-phase integrable mode approximations” of the perturbed field at each time step. The upshot is that the attractors are well-approximated, at least locally, by modulated N-phase periodic waves, where N remains small into the chaotic regime.


  1. [1]
    Bishop, A. R., Forest, M. G., McLaughlin, D. W., and Overman, E. A., Physica 23D (1986), 293–328MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Bishop, A. R., Forest, M. G., McLaughlin, D. W., and Overman, E. A., Physics Letters A 127 (6,7) (1988), 335–340.MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [2]
    Ercolani, N. M., Forest, M. G., and McLaughlin, D. W., “Fully nonlinear modal equations for nearly integrable pdes”, to be submitted.Google Scholar
  4. [3]
    Forest, M. G., Shen, S.-P., and Sinha, A., “Frequency and phase locking of spatially periodic perturbed sine-Gordon breather trains”, to appear, SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, in press.Google Scholar
  5. [4]
    Forest, M. G. and Sinha, A., “A numerical study of nearly integrable modulation equations”, submitted to Singular Limits of Dispersive Wave Equations, edited by Ercolani, Levermore, and Serre.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Forest
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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