Rating Scales for Psychosocial Stressors

  • Per Bech


The role of psychosocial factors in the development of mental disorders was first considered by Pinel in the late eighteenth century but was formulated most clearly by Esquirol in 1845 in his treatise on insanity. Esquirol emphasized that the causes of mental alienation are numerous: general or specific, physical or moral, primary or secondary, predisposing or exciting: “Not only do climate, season, age, sex, temperament, profession and mode of life have an influence upon the frequency, character, duration, crises and treatment of insanity; but this malady is still modified by laws, civilization, morals, and the political condition of people.” (Esquirol, 1845). Winter depression, for example, was considered by Esquirol to be a seasonally pathogenic depression.


Psychosocial Stressor Major Life Event Late Eighteenth Century Problem Checklist Marital Separation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Bech
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryFrederiksborg General HospitalHillerødDenmark

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