While axes 1 and 2 syndromes of DSM-III should be referred to as psychopathological disability dimensions, axis 3 disorders should be seen as somatic disability syndromes, where the term disability covers the clinical symptoms resulting from an organic (somatic) disease. Feinstein (1987) has differentiated between an ailment-oriented index (disability which is the characteristic focus of attention in clinical care) and disorder-specific indices (where the clinical symptoms have diagnostic properties).


Tension Headache Discriminant Function Analysis Somatic Disorder Personality Item Anginal Pain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allerup P, Bech P, Loldrup D. The dynamic Rasch model in the analysis of improvement curves based on single item visual analogue scales in patients with chronic pain disorders. Internat J Educ Research 1992 (in press).Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong DM. Body Sensations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962.Google Scholar
  3. Barker DJP, Bishop JM. Computer-based screening system for patients at risk of hypothyreoidism. Lancet 1969; ii: 835–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bech P, Kastrup M, Loldrup D. Use of headache rating scales: a multiaxial approach. Cephalalgia 1986; 6: 69–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett AE, Ritchie K. Questionnaires in Medicine. London: Oxford Univ Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. Brodman K, Erdmann AJ, Lorge I, Wolff EG. The Cornell Medical Index: An adjunct to medical intervension. JAMA 1949; 140: 530–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Budd M. Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology. London: Routledge, 1989.Google Scholar
  8. Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association. Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels: Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1964.Google Scholar
  9. Crooks J, Murray IPC, Wayne EJ. Statistical methods applied to the clinical diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Quart J Med 1959; 28:211–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Feinstein AR. Clinimetrics. New Haven: Yale Univ Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  11. International Association for the Study of Pain. Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Recommended by an IASP subcommittee on taxonomy. Pain 1979; 6: 249–252.Google Scholar
  12. Kellner R, Sheffield BF. A self-rating scale of distress. Psychol Med 1973; 3: 88–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kellner R. The symptom-rating test. In: Sartorius N, Ban TA (eds). Assessment of Depression. Berlin: Springer, 1986, pp. 213–220.Google Scholar
  14. Kenny A. The Metaphysics of Mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  15. Merkey H. The defintion of pain. Eur Psychiat 1991; 6:153–159.Google Scholar
  16. Pichot P. Problems raised by the application of psychometric methods to transversal and longitudinal studies. Adv Cardiol 1982; 29: 10–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Rawnsley K. Congruence of independent measures of psychiatric morbidity. J Psychosom Res 1966; 10: 84–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ryle G. The Concept of Mind. London: Hutchinson, 1949.Google Scholar
  19. Ryle G. Feelings. Phil Quart 1951; 1: 102–116.Google Scholar
  20. Strawson PF. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London: Methuen, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Waters WE. Community studies of the prevalence of headache. Headache, 1970; 9: 178–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Waters WE. Migraine: Intelligence, social class, and family prevalence. Br Med J 1971; 2: 77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waters WE. Headache. London: Croom Helm, 1986.Google Scholar
  24. Waters WE, O’Connor PJ. The epidemiology of headache and migraine in women. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1971; 34:148–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wittgenstein L. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1953.Google Scholar
  26. World Health Organisation. Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Bech
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryFrederiksborg General HospitalHillerødDenmark

Personalised recommendations