Vascular Malformations of the Brain

  • Mark J. Kupersmith

Abstract

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are found throughout the central nervous system and commonly affect the sensory visual and ocular motor systems. Patients can present with symptoms such as headache, migrainelike visual disturbances, visual loss, or diplopia that have brought them to an ophthalmological examination. Once an AVM of the brain (BAVM) is diagnosed, the visual and eye movement disorders must be accurately documented and monitored in order to properly assess the progression of the disease and the effects of therapy. BAVMs are potentially life-threatening lesions that can cause severe neurologic deficits and seizures. Early diagnosis can facilitate the implementation of therapies that can be curative. The literature concerning BAVMs is confused because of the inclusion of many vascular malformations that are not AVMs, inaccurate diagnoses prior to the development of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and incomplete angiography in many reports. Numerous categorizations of intracranial vascular malformations and angiomas exist; Yasargil’s classification (Tables 7.1, 7.2) seems to be the most helpful for distinguishing AVMs from other vascular lesions [1].

Keywords

Ischemia Dementia Retina Flare Meningioma 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark J. Kupersmith
    • 1
  1. 1.Director of Neuro-ophthalmology New York Eye and Ear InfirmaryNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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