Advertisement

Protection Against Peroxidation by Radicals in Cerebral Capillaries and Microvessels During Aging

  • J. M. Bourre
Conference paper

Summary

Nerve tissue (like cerebral capillaries and microvessels) has a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the linoleic and alpha-linolenic series. It also consumes large amounts of oxygen. Peroxidation of these fatty acids due to free radicals is a substantial risk for the biochemistry and physiology of these membranes and can result in cellular death.

Systemic injection in the rat of substances that generate free radicals seriously alters various tissues (as shown by the production of conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde) but has only a slight effect on the brain. This shows that the blood-brain barrier confers considerable protection. In fact cerebral capillaries and microvessels show superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities that are higher than those in the rest of cerebral tissues during aging.These activities vary little, except for catalase, which decreases. Curiously, the concentrations of Mn, Cu, and Zn are not related to the enzyme activities, whereas these trace elements are necessary for the activities of superoxide dismutase. On the other hand, during aging the cerebral capillaries and microvessels undergo pronounced changes at the level of the polyunsaturated fatty acids: for example, the concentration of arachidonic acid (expressed as a percentage) decreases by half.

Keywords

Arachidonic Acid Superoxide Dismutase Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Glutathione Peroxidase Glutathione Reductase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bourre JM (1989) Nature, origine et role des acides gras du système nerveux: un acide gras essentiel, l’acide alpha-linolénique, modula la structure et la fonction cérébrale. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 173: 1137–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bourre JM, Clément M, Chaudière J (1987) Alteration of the alpha-tocopherol content in the brain and the peripheral nervous tissue of dysmyelinating mutants (Trembler, Quaking and Shiverer). Neurochem. Pathol 7: 91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bourre JM, Francois M,Youyou A, Dumont O, Piciotti M, Pascal G, Durand G (1989) The effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the composition of nerve membranes, enzymatic activity, amplitude of electrophysiological parameters, resistance to poisons and performance of learning tasks in rats. J. Nutr 119: 1880–1892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brizzee KR, Eddy DE, Harman D, Mark Ordy J (1984) Free radical theory of aging: effect of dietary lipids on lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus of rats. Age 7: 9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan PH, Fishman RA, Caronna J, Schmidley JW, Prioleau G, Lee J (1983) Induction of brain edema following intracerebral injection of arachidonic acid. Ann. Neurol. (1989) 13: 625–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaudière J, Tappel AL (1983) Purification and characterization of selenium glutathion peroxidase from hamster liver. Arch. Biochem. Biophys 226: 448–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaudière J, Clément M, Gérard D, Bourre JM (1987) Induction of selenium glutathione peroxidase by stimulation of metabolic hydrogen peroxide production in vivo. Biochem Bioener 18: 247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaudière J, Clément M, Gérard D, Bourre JM (1988) Liver and brain alterations induced by vitamin E deficiency and intoxication with methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. Neurotoxicology 9: 173–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Clément M, Bourre JM (1990) Alteration of α-tocopherol content in the developing an aging peripheral nervous system: persistence of high correlations with total and specific (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Neurochem 54: 21210–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Danh HC, Benedetti MS, Dostert P (1983) Differential changes in superoxide dismutase activity in brain and liver of old rats and mice. J. Neurochem 40: 1003–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dobretsov GE, Borschezvskaya TA, Petrov VA, Vladimorov YA (1977) The increase of phospholipid bilayer rigidity after lipid peroxidation. FEBS Lett 84: 125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferradini C (1986) Espèces activées radicalaires de l’oxygène. Biochimie 68: 779–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gatti C, Noremberg K, Bruneti M,Tolato S, Calderini G, Gaiti A (1986) Turnover of palmitic and arachidonic acid in the phospholipids from different brain areas of adult and aged rats. Neurochem. Res 11: 241–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harman D (1981) The aging process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 7124–7128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Homayoun P, Durand G, Pascal G, Bourre JM (1988) Alteration in fatty acid composition of adult rat brain capillaries and choroid plexus induced by a diet deficient in (n-3) fatty acids. Slow recovery by substitution with a non deficient diet. J. Neurochem 51: 45–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Machlin LJ, Gabriel E (1982) Kinetics of tissue α-tocopherol uptake and depletion following administration of high levels of vitamine E. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci 393: 48–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mizuno Y, Ohta K (1986) Regional distributions of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, activities of enzymes regulating the metabolism of oxygen free radicals and some of the related enzymes in adult and age rat brains. J. Neurochem 46: 1344–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roth GS (1979) Hormone receptor changes during adulthood senescence: significance for aging research. Fed. Proc: 1910–1914Google Scholar
  19. Sawada M, Carlson J (1987) Changes in superoxide radical and lipid peroxide formation in the brain heart and liver during the lifetime of the rat. Mech Ageing Dev 41: 125–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shroeder F (1984) Role of membrane lipid asymmetry in aging. Neurobiol. Aging 5: 448–457Google Scholar
  21. Tappel AL (1980) Measurement and protection from in vivo lipid peroxidation. In: Pryor WA (ed) Free radicals in biology, Vol 4. Academic, New York, pp 2–47Google Scholar
  22. Tayarani I, Chaudière J, Lefauconnier JM, Bourre JM (1987) Enzymatic protection against peroxidation damage in isolated brain capillaries. J. Neurochem 48: 1339–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tayarani I, Cloez I, Clément M, Bourre JM (1989) Antioxydant enzymes and related trace elements in aging brain capillaries and choroid plexus. J. Neurochem 53: 817–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vanella A, Geremia E, d’Urso G, Tiriolo P, Di Silvestro I, Grimaldi R, Pinturo R (1982) Superoxide dismutase activities in aging rat brain. Gerontology 28: 108–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vatassery GT, Angerhofer CK, Knox CA, Deshmukh DS (1984) Concentration of vitamin E. in various neuroanatomical regions and subcellular fractions and the uptake of vitamin E by specific areas, of rat brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 792: 118–122PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Bourre

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations