Opioids II pp 293-324 | Cite as

Opioid Systems and Stress

  • R. Przewłocki
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 104 / 2)


An understanding of the mechanisms by which an organism responds to environmental disturbances began with claude bernard’s concept of an internal environment which must be maintained to preserve life. This idea was further expanded by cannon (1939), who coined the term homeostasis to describe physiological reactions which maintain the steady state of the organism in the face of external stimuli. He observed that emotional as well as physiological disturbances could elicit sympathetic nervous system and adrenal responses. We now call these disturbing forces or threats “stressors”. The concept of stress was first formulated by selye in 1936. Selye conceptualized stress in terms of a specific reaction pattern to a variety of stressors.


Opioid Receptor Ventral Tegmental Area Opioid Peptide Nucleus Tractus Solitarii Opioid System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abercrombie ED, Jacobs BL (1988) Systemic naloxone potentiates locus coeruleus noradrenergic neuronal activity under stressful but not non-stressful conditions. Brain Res 441:362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abercrombie ED, Levine ES, Jacobs BL (1988) Microinjected morphine suppresses the activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons in freely moving cats. Neurosci Lett 86:334–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ader R, Felten O, Cohen N (1990) Interaction between the brain and the immune system. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 30:561–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akil H, Mayer OJ, Liebeskind JC (1976) Antagonism of stimulation produced analgesia by naloxone, a narcotic antagonist. Science 191:961–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akil H, Shiomi H, Matthews J (1985) Induction of the intermediate pituitary by stress. Synthesis and release of a non-opioid form of β-endorphin. Science 227:424–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Akil H, Young E, Walker JM, Watson SJ (1986) The many possible roles of opioids and related peptides in stress-induced analgesia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 467:140–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Almeida OFX, Nikolarakis KE, Sirinathsinghji DJS, Herz A (1989). Opioidmediated inhibition of sexual behaviour and luteinizing hormone secretion by corticotrophin-releasing hormone. In: Dyer RG, Bicknell RJ (eds) Brain opioid systems in reproduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 149–164Google Scholar
  8. Arimura A, Schally A V, Bowers CY (1969) Corticotropin-releasing activity of lysine vasopressin analogues. Endocrinology 84:579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barna I, Sweep CG, Veldhuis HD, Wiegant VM, De Wied D (1990) Effects of pituitary β-endorphin secretagogues on the concentration of β-endorphin in rat cerebrospinal fluid: evidence for a role of vasopressin in the regulation of brain β-endorphin release. Neuroendocrinology 51:104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaulieu S, Gagne B, Barden N (1988) Glucocorticoid regulation of proopiomelanocortin messenger ribonucleic acid content of rat hypothalamus. Mol Endocrinol 2:727–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkenbosch F, Tilders RJH, Vermes I (1983) β-Adrenoceptor activation mediates stress-induced secretion of β-endorphin-related peptides from the intermediate but not anterior pituitary. Nature 305:237–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blalock JE, Harbour-McMenamin D, Smith EM (1985) Peptide hormones shared by the neuroendocrine and immunologic systems. J Immunol 135:858s-861sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bloom FE, Battenberg E, Rossier J, Ling N, Guillemin R (1978) Neurons containing β-endorphin in rat brain exist separately from those containing enkephalin: immunocytochemical studies. Proc NatI Acad Sci USA 75:1591–1595Google Scholar
  14. Bloom FE, Battenberg ELF, Rivier J, Vale W (1982) Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF): immunoreactive neurons and fibers in rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept 4:43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Broekkamp CL, Phillips AG, Cools AR (1979) Facilitation of self stimulation behavior following intracerebral microinjection of opioid into the ventral tegmental area. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 11:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buckingham JC (1986) Stimulation and inhibition of corticotropin releasing factor secretion by β-endorphin. Neuroendocrinology 42:148–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burns G, Almeida OFX, Passarelli F, Herz A (1989) A two-step mechanism by which corticotropin-releasing hormone releases hypothalamic β-endorphin: the role of vasopressin and G-proteins. Endocrinology 125:1365–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cannon WB (1939) The wisdom of the body. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Cesselin F, Oliveras JL, Bourgoin S, Sieralta F, Michelot R, Besson JM, Hamon M (1982) Increased levels of met-enkephalin-like material in the CSF of anesthetized cat after tooth pulp stimulation. Brain Res 237:325–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chance WT, White AC, Krynock GM, Rosecrans JA (1978) Conditional fearinduced decrease in the binding of 3H-N-leu-enkephalin to rat brain. Brain Res 141:371–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chipkin RE, Latranyi MB, Iorio LC (1983) Potentiation of stress induced analgesia (SIA) by thiorphan and its blockade by naloxone. Life Sci 31:1184–1192Google Scholar
  22. Christie MJ, Chesher GB, Bird KD (1981) The correlation between swim-stress induced antinociception and (3H)-leu-enkephalin binding to brain homogenates in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 15:853–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke G, Davison I, MacMillan SJ, Wright DN (1990) Differential activity of selective opioid agonists on hypothalamic magnocellular neuronal activity. Prog Clin Bioi Res 328:351–354Google Scholar
  24. Day R, Schäfer MK, Collard MW, Watson SJ, Akil H (1991) Atypical prodynorphin gene expression in corticosteroid-producing cells of the rat adrenal gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 1320–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Deutch A Y, Tam SY, Roth RH (1985) Footshock and conditioned stress increase DOP AC in the ventral tegmental area but not substantia nigra. Brain Res 333:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Chiara G, Imperato A (1988) Opposite effects of μ- and κ-opiate agonists on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and in the dorsal caudate of freely moving rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 244:1067–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Diez-Guerra FJ, Augood S, Emson PC, Dyer RG (1986) Morphine inhibits electrically stimulated noradrenaline release from slices of rat medial preoptic area. Neuroendocrinology 43:89–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans CJ, Hammond DL, Fredrickson RCA (1983) The opioid peptides. In: Pasternak GW (ed) The opiate receptors. Humana, Clifton, p 23Google Scholar
  29. Faden AJ, Molineauks CJ, Rosenberg JG, Jacobs TP, Cox BM (1985) Endogenous opioid immunoreactivity in rat spinal cord following traumatic injury. Ann Neurol 17:368–390Google Scholar
  30. Ferri S, Arrigo-Reina R, Candeletti S, Cost G, Murari G, Speroni E, Scoto G (1983) Central and peripheral sites of action for the protective effect of opioids of the rat stomach. Pharmacol Res Commun 15:409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher LA (1989) Corticotropin-releasing factor: endocrine and autonomic integration of responses to stress. TIPS 10:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Forman LJ, Estilow S (1988) Estrogen influences the effect of immobilization stress on immunoreactive β-endorphin levels in the female rat pituitary. Proc Soc Exp Bioi Med 187:190–196Google Scholar
  33. Forman LJ, Estilow S, Mead J, Vasilenko P (1988) Eight weeks of streptozotocininduced diabetes influences the effects of cold stress on immunoreactive betaendorphin levels in female rats. Horm Metab Res 10:555–558Google Scholar
  34. Fratta W, Collu M, Martellotta MC, Pichiri M, Muntoni F, Gessa GL (1987) Stressinduced insomnia: opioid dopamine interactions. Eur J Pharmacol 142:437–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gillies GE, Linton EA, Lowry PJ (1982) Corticotropin-releasing activity of new CRF is potentiated several times by vasopressin. Nature 299:355–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Giuffre KA, Udelsman R, Listwak S, Chrousos GP (1988) Effects of immune neutralization of corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, and β-endorphin in the surgically stressed rat. Endocrinology 122:306–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Glatt CE, Kenner JR, Long JB, Holaday JW (1987) Cardiovascular effects of dynorphin A1-13 in conscious rats and its modulation of morphine bradycardia over time. Peptides 8:1089–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenberg A, Dyck D, Sandler L (1984) Opponent processes, neurohormones and neural resistance. In: Fox B, Newberry B (eds) Impact of psychoendocrine in cancer and immunity. Hogrefe, Toronto p 225Google Scholar
  39. Gue M, Pascaud X, Honde C, Junien JL, Bueno L (1988) CNS blockade of acoustic stress-induced gastric motor inhibition by kappa-opiate agonists in dogs. Am J Physiol 254:802–807Google Scholar
  40. Guillemin R, Vargo T, Rossier J, Minick S, Ling N, Rivier C, Vale W, Bloom F (1977) β-Endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are secreted concomitantly by the pituitary gland. Science 197:1367–1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gysling K, Wang RY (1983) Morphine-induced activation of AlO dopamine neurons in the rat. Brain Res 277:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanbauer I, Govoni F, Majane E, Yang HT, Costa E (1982) In vivo regulation of the release of met-en kephalin-like peptides from dog adrenal medulla. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 33:63–69Google Scholar
  43. Harbuz MS, Lightman SL (1989) Responses of hypothalamic and pituitary mRNA to physical and psychological stress in the rat. J Endocrinol 122:705–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Haskins JT, Gudelsky GA, Moss RL, Porter JC (1981) Iontophoresis of morphine into the arcuate nucleus: effects on dopamine concentrations in hypophysial portal plasma and serum prolactin concentrations. Endocrinology 108:767–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hassen AK, Feuerstein GZ, Faden AI (1982) Cardiovascular responses to opioid agonists injected into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius of anaesthetized cats. Life Sci 31:2193–2196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heijna MH, Hogenboom F, Schoffelmeer ANM, Mulder AH (1990) Opioid receptormediated inhibition of dopamine release from rat basal hypothalamus slices; involvement of both μ and κ receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 183:2334–2335Google Scholar
  47. Hernandez DE, Nemeroff CB, Orlando RC, Prange AJ (1983) The effect of centrally administered neuropeptides on the developdevelopment of stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats. J Neurosci Res 9:145–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hisano S, Daikoku S, Yanaihara N, Shibasaki T (1986) Intracellular localization of CRF and met-enk in nerve terminals in the rat median eminence. Brain Res 370:312–326Google Scholar
  49. Hnatowich MR, Labella FS, Kiernan K, Glavin GB (1986) Cold-restraint stress reduces (3H) etorphine binding to rat brain membranes: influence of acute and chronic morphine and naloxone. Brain Res 380:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hökfelt T, Fahrenkrug J, Ju G, Ceccatelli S, Tsuruo Y, Meister B, Mutt V, Rundgren M, Brodin E, Terenius L (1987) Analysis of peptide Histidineisoleucine vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system with special reference to their relation to corticotrophin releasing-factor and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience 23:827–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Holaday JW (1983) Cardiovascular effects of endogenous opiate systems. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 23:541–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Holaday JW, Hitzeman RJ, Curell I, Tortella FC, Belenky GI (1982) Repeated electroconvulsive shock or chronic morphine treatment increases the number of 3H-D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin binding sites in the rat brain membranes. Life Sci 31:2359–2362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Höllt V, Haarmann I, Seizinger BR, Herz A (1981) Levels of dynorphin (1–13) immunoreactivity in rat neurointermediate pituitaries are concomitantly altered with those of leucine-enkephalin and vasopressin in response to various endocrine manipulations. Neuroendocrinology 33:333–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Höllt V, Przewłocki R, Haarmann I, Almeida OFX, Kley N, Millan MJ, Herz A (1986) Stress-induced alterations in the levels of messenger RNA coding for proopiomelanocortin and prolactin in rat pituitary. Neuroendocrinology 43:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Holtzman SG (1974) Behavioural effects of separate and combined administration of naloxone and d-amphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 189:51–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hong JS, Yoshikawa K, Kanamatsu T, McGinty JF, Sabol SL (1985) Effects of repeated electroconvulsive shock on the biosynthesis of enkephalin and concentration of dynorphin in the rat brain. Neuropeptides 5:557–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ida Y, Tanaka M, Tsuda A, Tsujimaru S, Nagasaki N (1985) Attenuating effect of diazepam on stress-induced increases in noradrenaline turnover in specific brain regions of rats: antagonism by Ro 15–1788. Life Sci 37:2491–2498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Illes P (1989) Modulation of transmitter and hormone release by multiple neuronal opioid receptors. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 112:140–233Google Scholar
  59. Insel TR, Kinsley CH, Mann PE, Bridges RS (1990) Prenatal stress has long term effects on brain opiate receptors. Brain Res 511:93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jackisch R, Geppert M, Lupp A, Huang HY, Illes P (1988) Types of opioid receptors modulating neurotransmitter release in discrete brain regions. In: Illes P, Farsang C (eds) Regulatory roles of opioid peptides. VCH, Weinheim, pp 240–258Google Scholar
  61. Jackson HC, Ripley TL, Nutt DJ (1989) Exploring delta-receptor function using the selective opioid antagonist naltrindole. Neuropharmacology 28:1427–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jenck F, Gratton A, Wise RA (1987) Opioid receptor subtypes associated with ventral tegmental facilitation of lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation reward. Brain Res 423:34–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jingami H, Nakanishi S, Imura H, Numa S (1984) Tissue distribution of messenger RNA coding for opioid peptide precursors and related RNA. Eur J Biochem 142:441–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kalin NH, Shelton SE, Barksdale CM (1988) Opiate modulation of separationinduced distress in non-human primates. Brain Res 440:285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kalivas PW, Abhold R (1987) Enkephalin release into the ventral area in response to stress: modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine. Brain Res 414:339–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Dilts R, Abhold R (1988) Enkephalin modulation of A10 dopamine neurons: a role in dopamine sensitization. Ann N Y Acad Sci 537:405–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Eberhardt H (1990) Modulation of A10 dopamine neurons by gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 253:858–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Katoh A, Toshitaka N, Kameyama T (1990) Behavioral changes induced by stressful situations: effects of enkephalins, dynorphins, and their interactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 253:600–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kelley AE, Stinus L, Iversen SD (1980) Interactions between D-Ala-Met-enkephalin, A10 dopaminergic neurons, and spontaneous behavior in the rat. Behav Brain Res 1:3–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kelsey SJ, Watson SJ, Akil H (1984) Changes in pituitary POMC mRNA levels. Soc Neurosci Abstr 10:359Google Scholar
  71. Khachaturian H, Lewis ME, Schäfer MKH, Watson SJ (1985) Anatomy of the CNS opioid systems. Trends Neurosci 8:111–119Google Scholar
  72. Knepel W, Reimann W (1982) Inhibition by morphine and β-endorphin of vasopressin release evoked by electrical stimulation of the rat medial basal hypothalamus in vitro. Brain Res 238:484–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Knepel W, Przewlocki R, Herz A (1985) Foot shock stress-induced release of vasopressin in adenohypophysectomized and hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 117:292–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Koenig JI, Meltzer HY, Devane GD, Gudelsky GA (1986) The concentration of arginine vasopressin in pituitary stalk plasma of the rat after adrenalectomy or morphine. Endocrinology 118:2534–2539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kopin IJ, Eisenhofer G, Goldstein D (1988) Sympathomedullary system and stress. In: Chrousos GP, Loriaux DL, Gold W (eds) Mechanisms of physical and emotional stress. Plenum, New York, pp 11–23Google Scholar
  76. Krahn DD, Gosnell BA, Grace M, Levine AS (1986) CRF antagonists partially reverses CRF and stress-induced effect on feeding. Brain Res Bull 17:285–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kurumaji A, Takashima M, Shibuya H (1987) Cold and immobilization stressinduced changes in pain responsiveness and brain met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the rat. Peptides 8:355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lasoń W, Przewłocka B, Stala L, Przewlocki R (1983) Changes in hippocampal immunoreactive dynorphin and a-neoendorphin content following intraamygdalar kainic acid induced seizures. Neuropeptides 3:399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lasoń W, Przewłocka B, Przewłocki R (1987) Single and repeated electroconvulsive shock differentially affects the prodynorphin and proopiomelanocortin system in the rat. Brain Res 403:301–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Latimer LG, Duffy P, Kalivas PW (1987) Mu opioid receptor involvement in enkephalin activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 241:328–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Laurent S, Schmitt H (1983) Central cardiovascular effects of kappa agonists dynorphin-(1–13) and ethylketocyclazocine in the anaesthetized rat. Eur J Pharmacol 96:165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Leander JD (1982) A kappa opioid effects increased urination in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 224:89–94Google Scholar
  83. Ledda F, Mantelli L, Corti V (1985) Sensitivity to dynorphin1-13 of the presynaptic inhibitory opiate receptors of the guinea-pig heart. Eur J Pharmacol 117:377–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lee NM, Smith AP (1984) Possible regulatory function of dynorphin and its clinical implications. TIPS 5:108–110Google Scholar
  85. Lester LS, Fanselow MS (1986) Naloxone’s enhancement of freezing: modulation of perceived intensity or memory processes? Physiol Psychol 14:5–10Google Scholar
  86. Lewis JW, Tordoff MG, Sherman JE, Liebeskind JC (1982) Adrenal medullary en kephalin-like peptides may mediate opioid stress analgesia. Science 217:557–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lewis JW, Mansour A, Khachaturian H, Watson SJ, Akil H (1987) Opioids and pain regulation. In: Akil H, Lewis JW (eds) Neurotransmitters and pain control. Karger, Basel, pp 129–159Google Scholar
  88. Lightman SL, Young WS (1989) Influence of steroids on the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and preproenkephalin mRNA responses to stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:4306–4310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Linton EA, Tilders FJH, Hodgkinson S, Berkenbosch F, Vermes I, Lowry PJ (1985) Stress-induced secretion of adrenocorticotropin in rats is inhibited by antisera to ovine corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin. Endocrinology 116:966–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. MacLennan AJ, Drugan RC, Hyson RL, Maier RF, Madden J, Barchas JD (1982) Corticosterone. A critical factor in an opioid form of stress-induced analgesia. Science 215:1530–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Majeed NH, Lasoń W, Przewłocka B, Przewłocki R (1984) Differential modulation of the beta-endorphin and dynorphin systems by serotonergic stimulation in the rat. Neuropeptides 5:563–566Google Scholar
  92. Majeed NH, Lasoń W, Przewlocka B, Przewłocki R (1986) Brain and peripheral opioids after changes in ingestive behaviour. Neuroendocrinology 42:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mason JW (1971) A re-evaluation of the concept of non specificity in stress theory. J Psychiatr Res 8:323–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Matthews RT, German DC (1984) Electrophysiological evidence for excitation of rat ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons by morphine. Neuroscience 11:617–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McFadzean I, Lacey MG, Hill RG, Henderson G (1987) Kappa opioid receptor activation depresses excitatory synaptic input to rat locus coeruleus neurons in vitro. Neuroscience 20:231–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. McGivern RF, Mousa S, Couri D, Berntson GG (1983) Prolonged intermittent footshock stress decreases met- and leu-enkephalin levels in brain with concomitant decreases in pain threshold. Life Sci 33:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mezey E, Kiss JZ, Skirboll LR, Goldstein M, Axelrod J (1984) Increase of corticotropin-releasing factor staining in rat paraventricular nucleus neurones by depletion of hypothalamic adrenaline. Nature 310:140–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Millan MJ, Przewłocki R, Jerlicz MH, Gramsch C, Höllt V, Herz A (1981a) Stress induced release of brain pituitary p-endorphin: major role of endorphin in generation of hyperthermia, not analgesia. Brain Res 208:325–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Millan MJ, Tsang YF, Przewłocki R, Höllt V, Herz A (1981b) The influence of footshock stress upon brain pituitary and spinal cord pools of immunoreactive dynorphin in rats. Neurosci Lett 24:75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Morley JE, Elson MK, Levine AS, Shafer RB (1982) The effects of stress on central nervous system concentrations of the opioid peptide, dynorphin. Peptides 3:901–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Munck A, Guyre PM, Holbrook NJ (1984) Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Endocr Rev 5:25–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nakamura M, Kamata K, Inoue H, Inaba M (1989) Effects of opioid peptides administered in conscious rats on the changes in blood adrenaline levels caused by immobilization stress. Jpn J Pharmacol 50:354–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Nakata Y, Chang KJ, Mitchell CL, Hong JS (1985) Repeated electroconvulsive shock down regulates the opioid receptors in rat brain. Brain Res 346:160–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Nikolarakis KE, Almeida OFX, Herz A (1986) Stimulation of hypothalamic β-endorphin and dynorphin release by corticotropin releasing factor (in vitro). Brain Res 399: 152–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nikolarakis KE, Almeida OFX, Sirinathsinghji DJS, Herz A (1988) Concomitant changes in the in vitro and in vivo release of opioid peptides and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone from the hypothalamus following blockade of receptors for corticotropin releasing factor. Neuroendocrinology 47:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nordin M, Morat P, Zainora M (1987) The effect of endogenous opioids on blood pressure during stress. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 14:303–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. North RA (1986) Opioid receptor types and membrane ion channels. Trends Neurosci 9:144–117Google Scholar
  108. Odio M, Brodish A (1990) Central but not peripheral opiate receptor blockade prolonged pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 35:963–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Olson GA, Olson RD, Kastin AJ (1987) Endogenous opiates. Peptides 10:205–236Google Scholar
  110. Olson GA, Olson RD, Kastin AJ (1988) Endogenous opiates. Peptides 10:1253–1280Google Scholar
  111. Olson GA, Olson RD, Kastin AJ (1989) Endogenous opiates. Peptides 11:1277–1304Google Scholar
  112. Osborne H, Przewłocki R, Höllt V, Herz A (1979) Release of β-endorphin from rat hypothalamus in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 55:425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Osgood PF, Murphy JL, Carr DB, Szyfelbein SK (1986) Increases in plasma β endorphin and tail-flick latency in the rat following burn injury. Life Sci 40:547–554Google Scholar
  114. Owens PC, Smith R (1987) Opioid peptides in blood and cerebrospinal fluid during acute stress. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1:415–437Google Scholar
  115. Petralgia F, Vale W, Rivier C (1986) Opioids act centrally to modulate stressinduced decrease in luteinizing hormone in the rat. Endocrinology 119:2445–2450Google Scholar
  116. Pittman QJ, Hatton JD, Bloom FE (1980) Morphine and opioid peptides reduce paraventricular neuronal activity: studies on the rat hypothalamic slice preparation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5527–5531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Plotnikoff NP, Miller GC (1983) Enkephalins as immunomodulators. Int J Immunopharmacol 5:437–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Plotsky PM (1986) Opioid inhibition of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor secretion into the hypophysial-portal circulation of rats. Regul Pept 16:235–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Przewłocka B, Stala L, Lasoń W, Przewłocki R (1983) The effect of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizures threshold in the rat. Is dynorphin an endogenous anticonvulsant? Life Sci 33 (suppl):595–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Przewłocka B, Vetulani J, Lasoń W, Dziedzicka M, Silberring J, Castellano C, Przewłocki R (1988) The difference in stress-induced analgesia in C57BLl6 and DBAl2 mice: a search for biochemical correlates. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 40:497–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Przewłocka B, Sumova A, Lasoń W (1990) The influence of anticipation stress on opioid systems in rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 37:661–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Przewłocki R, Höllt V, Voight KH, Herz A (1979) Modulation of in vitro release of β-endorphin from the separate lobes of the rat pituitary. Life Sci 24:1601–1608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Przewłocki R, Millan J, Gramsch C, Millan MH, Herz A (1982) The influence of selective adeno-neurointermedio-hypophysectomy upon plasma and brain levels of endorphin and their response to stress in rats. Brain Res 242:107–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Przewłocki R, Lasoń W, Konecka A, Gramsch C, Herz A, Reid L (1983a) The opioid peptide dynorphin, circadian rhythms, and starvation. Science 219:71–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Przewłocki R, Shearman GT, Herz A (1983b) Mixed opioid/nonopioid effects of dynorphin and dynorphin-related peptides after their intrathecal injection in rats. Neuropeptides 3:233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Przewłocki R, Lasoń W, Höllt V, Silberring J, Herz A (1987) The influence of chronic stress on multiple opioid peptide systems in the rat: pronounced effects upon dynorphin in spinal cord. Brain Res 413:213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Przewłocki R, Majeed NH, Wedzony K, Przewłocka B (1988a) The effect of stress on the opioid peptide systems in the rat nucleus accumbens. In: Kvetnansky R, Van Loon GR, McCarty R, Axelrod J (eds) Stress: neurochemical and humoral mechanisms. Gordon and Breach, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Przewłocki R, Haarmann I, Nikolarakis K, Herz A, Höllt V (1988b) Prodynorphin gene expression in spinal cord is enhanced after traumatic injury in the rat. Mol Brain Res 4:37–41Google Scholar
  129. Raab A, Seizinger BR, Herz A (1985) Continuous social defeat induces an increase of endogenous opioids in discrete brain areas of the mongolian gerbil. Peptides 6:387–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ray A, Henke PG, Sullivan RM (1988) Opiate mechanisms in the central amygdale and gastric stress pathology in rats. Brain Res 442:195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rivier C, Rivier J, Mormede P, Vale W (1984) Studies on the nature of the interaction between vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing factor on adrenocortin release in the rat. Endocrinology 115:882–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Rossier J, French ED, Rivier C, Ling N, Bloom FK (1977) Foot-shock induced stress increases β-endorphin levels in blood but not brain. Nature 270:618–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Rossier J, Guillemin R, Bloom FE (1978) Foot-shock induced stress decreases Leu5- enkephalin immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamus. Eur J Pharmacol 48:465–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Roth KA, Weber E, Barchas JD, Chang JK (1983) Immunoreactive dynorphin1-8 and corticotropin releasing factor in subpopulation of hypothalamic neurones. Science 219:189–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sawchenko PE, Swanson LW, Vale W (1984) Co-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and vasopressin immunoreactivity in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the adrenalectomized rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:1883–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Scatton B, D’Angio M, Driscoll P, Serrano A (1988) An in vitro voltametric study of the response of mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons to environmental stimuli in strains of rats with differing levels of emotionality. Ann NY Acad Sci 537:124–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schoffelmeer ANM, Hogenboom F, Mulder AH (1988) Sodium dependent 3H-noradrenaline release from rat neocortical slices in the absence of extracellular calcium: presynaptic modulation by μ-opioid receptor and adenylate cyclase activation. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 338:548–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Seeger TF, Sforzo GA, Pert CB, Pert A (1984) In vivo autoradiography: visualization of stress induced changes in opiate receptor occupancy in the rat brain. Brain Res 305:303–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Selye H (1936) A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature 138:32Google Scholar
  140. ShaVit Y, Lewis JW, Terman G, Gale RP, Liebeskind C (1986) Stress, opioid peptides and immune function. In: Frederickson RCA, Hendrie IN, Hingtgen HC (eds) Neuroregulation of autonomic endocrine and immune systems. Nijhoff, Boston, p 343Google Scholar
  141. Sherman TG, Civelli O, Douglas J, Herbert E, Watson SJ (1986) Coordinate expression of hypothalamic pro-dynorphin and pro-vasopressin mRNA with osmotic stimulation. Neuroendocrinology 44:222–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Shiomi H, Akil H (1982) Pulse-chase studies of the POMC/β-endorphin system in the pituitary of acutely and chronically stressed rats. Life Sci 31:2271–2273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sitsen JMA, Van Ree JM, De Jong W (1982) Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-endorphin in anaesthetized and conscious rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4:883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Spanagel R, Herz A, Schippenberg TS (1990) The effects of opioid peptides on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study. J Neurochem 55:1734–1740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Starke K, Schoffel E, Illes P (1985) The sympathetic axons innervating the sinus node of the rabbit possess presynaptic opioid κ-, but not μ- or δ-receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 329:206–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Stein C, Hassan AHS, Przewłocki R, Gramsch C, Peter K, Herz A (1990) Opioids from immunocytes interact with receptors on sensory nerves to inhibit nociception in inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:5935–5939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Stein EA, Hiller JE, Simon EJ (1988) Alteration in opiate receptor binding following stressful stimuli in the rat. In: Cros J, Meunier J-CL, Hamon M (eds) Progress in opioid research. Advances in the biosciences. Pergamon Press, Oxford, NewYork, vol 75, pp 639–642Google Scholar
  148. Stuckey J, Marra S, Minor T, Insel TR (1989) Changes in mu opiate receptors following inescapable shock. Brain Res 476:167–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Summy-Long JY, Rosella-Dampman LM, McLemore GL, Koehler E (1990) Kappa opiate receptors inhibit release of oxytocin from the magnocellular system during dehydration. Neuroendocrinology 51:376–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sumova A, Jakoubek B (1989) Analgesia and impact induced by anticipation stress:involvement of the endogenous opioid peptide system. Brain Res 503:273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sun K, Lin BC, Zhang C, Wang CH, Zhu HN (1989) Possible involvement of β-endorphin in the deteriorating effect of arginine vasopressin on burn shock in rats. Circ Shock 29:167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Swanson LW, Sawchenko PE, Berod A, Hartman BK, Helle KB, Van Orden DE (1981) An immunohistochemical study of the organization of catecholaminergic cells and terminal fields in the para ventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. J Comp Neurol 196:271–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Swanson LW, Sawchenko PE, Rivier J, Vale WW (1983) Organization of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibres in the rat brain: an immunohistochemical study. Neuroendocrinology 36: 165–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sweep CG, Boomkamp MD, Barna I, Logtenberg AW, Wiegant VM (1990) Vasopressin enhances the clearance of β-endorphin immunoreactivity from rat cerebrospinal fluid. Acta Endocrinol (Copen h) 122:191–200Google Scholar
  155. Tache Y, Garrick T, Raybould H (1990) Central nervous system action of peptides to influence gastrointestinal motor function. Gastroenterology 98:517–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Tanaka M, Kohno Y, Tsuda A, Nakagawa R, Ida Y, limori Y, Hoaki Y, Nagasaki N (1983) Differential effect of morphine on noradrenaline release in brain regions of stressed and non-stressed rats. Brain Res 275:105–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Takahashi M, Senda T, Tokuyama S, Kaneto H (1990) Further evidence for the implication of kappa opioid receptor mechanism in the production of the stress induced analgesia. Jpn J Pharmacol 53:487–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Takayama H, Ota Z, Ogawa N (1986) Effect of immobilization stress on neuropeptides and their receptors in rat central nervous system. Regul Pept 15:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Teskey GC, Kavaliers M (1988) Effects of opiate agonists and antagonists on aggressive encounters and subsequent opioid-induced analgesia, activity and feeding responses in male mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 31:43–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Thompson ML, Miczek KA, Noda K, Shuster L, Kumar MS (1988) Analgesia in defeated mice: evidence for mediation via central rather than pituitary or adrenal endogenous opioid peptides. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29:451–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Tiligada E, Wilson JF (1990) Ionic, neuronal and endocrine influences on the proopiomelanocortin system of the hypothalamus. Life Sci 46:81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Till M, Gati T, Rabai K, Szombath D, Szekely JI (1988) Effect of [D-Met2, Pro5]enkephalinamide on gastric ulceration and transmucosal potential difference. Eur J Pharmacol 150:325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Tonoue T, Iwasawa H, Naito H (1987) Diazepam and endorphin independently inhibit ultrasonic distress calls in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 142: 133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Tortella FC (1988) Endogenous opioid peptides and epilepsy: quieting the seizing brain? TIPS 9:366–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Tsagarakis S, Rees LH, Besser N, Grossman A (1990) Opiate receptor subtype regulation of CRF-41 release from hypothalamus in vitro. Neuroendocrinology 51:599–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Tsuji S, Nakai Y, Fukata J, Nakaishi S, Takahashi H, Usui T, Imura H (1987) Effects of food deprivation and high fat diet on immunoreactive dynorphin A(1–8) levels in brain regions of Zucker rats. Peptides 8:1075–1078Google Scholar
  167. Vale W, Rivier C, Yang L, Minick S, Guillemin R (1978) Effects of purified hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and other substances on the secretion of adrenocorticotropin and β-endorphin immunoreactivities in vitro. Endocrinology 103:1911–1915Google Scholar
  168. Van Loon GR, Pierzchala K, Houdi AA, Kvetnansky R, Zeman P (1990) Tolerance and cross-tolerance to stress-induced increases in plasma meten kephalin in rats with adaptively increased resting secretion. Endocrinology 126:2196–2204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Vasvani KK, Richard CW, Tejwani GA (1988) Cold swim stress-induced changes in the levels of opioid peptides in the rat CNS and peripheral tissue. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 29: 163–168Google Scholar
  170. Viveros DH, Diliberto EJ Jr, Hazum E, Chang KJ (1979) Opiate-like materials in the adrenal medulla: evidence for storage and secretion with catecholamines. Mol Pharmacol 16:1101–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Watson SJ, Khachaturian H, Akil H, Koy DH, Goldstein A (1982) Comparison of the distribution of dynorphin systems and enkephalin in brain. Science 218:1134–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Whit nail MH, Gainer H, Cox BM, Molineaux CJ (1983) Dynorphin A(1–8) is contained within vasopressin neurosecretory vesicles in rat pituitary. Science 222:1137–1139Google Scholar
  173. Williams CL, Burks T (1989) Stress, opioids and gastrointestinal transit. In: Tache Y, Morley JE, Brown MR (eds) Neuropeptides and stress. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 175Google Scholar
  174. Williams CL, Villar RG, Peterson JM, Burks TF (1988) Stress-induced changes in intestinal transit in the rat: a model for irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 94:611–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wybran E (1985) Enkephalins and endorphins as modifiers of the immune system: present and future. Fed Proc 44:92–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Xie GX, Han JS, Höllt V (1983) Electroacupuncture analgesia blocked by microinjection of anti-beta-endorphin antiserum into periaqueductal grey in rabbit. Int J Neurosci 18:287–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Young EA (1990) Induction of the intermediate lobe pro-opiomelanocortin system with chronic swim stress and p-adrenergic modulation of this induction. Neuroedocrinology 52:405–414Google Scholar
  178. Young EA, Akil H (1985) Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulation of adrenocorticotropin and β-endorphin release: effect of acute and chronic stress. Endocrinology 117:23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Zeman P, Alexandrova M, Kvetnansky R (1988) Opioid μ and δ and dopamine receptor number changes in rat striatum during stress. Endocrinol Exp 22:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Zhao BG, Chapman C, Bicknell RJ (1988) Functional kappa-opioid receptors on oxytocin and vasopressin nerve terminals isolated from the rat neurohypophysis. Brain Res 462:62–66PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Przewłocki

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations