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Opioids II pp 293-324 | Cite as

Opioid Systems and Stress

  • R. Przewłocki
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 104 / 2)

Abstract

An understanding of the mechanisms by which an organism responds to environmental disturbances began with claude bernard’s concept of an internal environment which must be maintained to preserve life. This idea was further expanded by cannon (1939), who coined the term homeostasis to describe physiological reactions which maintain the steady state of the organism in the face of external stimuli. He observed that emotional as well as physiological disturbances could elicit sympathetic nervous system and adrenal responses. We now call these disturbing forces or threats “stressors”. The concept of stress was first formulated by selye in 1936. Selye conceptualized stress in terms of a specific reaction pattern to a variety of stressors.

Keywords

Opioid Receptor Ventral Tegmental Area Opioid Peptide Nucleus Tractus Solitarii Opioid System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

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  • R. Przewłocki

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