Simulation of Psychological Processes: Basic Issues and an Illustration Within the Etiology of a Depressive Disorder

  • Harald Schaub
  • Günter Schiepek
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 58)


This contribution is subdivided into two parts. The first section surveys some of the common approaches used to simulate psychological processes by means of models implemented on the computer, (a) Parallel distributed processing and connectionism, (b) the concept of production systems, (c) semantic and propositional networks, (d) differences and differential equation sets and (e) cellular automata will be presented. In the second part, the concept of production systems will be used to simulate a concrete example of the development of a depressive disorder. The recursive nesting of seven relevant variables serves as the basis for this simulation. The variables were obtained by the detailed analysis of an individual case study. The simulation, formulated in 46 productions (IF-THEN rules) underwent extensive model testing.


Production System Cellular Automaton Psychological Process Semantic Network Coping Effort 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ALLOY LB, CLEMENTS C, KOLDEN G (1985) The Cognitive Diathesis-Stress Theories of Depression: Therapeutic Implications. In: Reiss S, Bootzin RR (Eds): Theoretical Issues in Behavior Therapy. Academic Press, New York,pp 379–410Google Scholar
  2. ANDERSON JR (1980) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  3. ANDERSON JR (1983) The Architecture of Cognition. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. BARTLETT FC (1932) Remembering. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. BISCHOF N (1985) Das Rätsel Ödipus. Piper, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  6. COLLINS AM, LOFTUS EF (1975) A Spreading-activation Theory of Semantic Processing. Psychological Review 82, 407–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. COLLINS AM, QUILLIAN MR (1972) Experiments on Semantic Memory and Language Comprehension. In: Gregg LW (Ed): Cognition and Learning. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. DÖRNER D, KREUZIG HW, REITHER F, STÄUDEL T (Hrsg) (1983) Lohhausen. Vom Umgang mit Unbestimmtheit und Komplexität. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  9. EIGEN M, WINKLER R (1975) Das Spiel. Naturgesetze steuern den Zufall. Piper, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  10. GRAWE K (1987) Psychotherapie als Entwicklungsstimulation von Schemata. Ein Prozeß mit nicht vorhersehbarem Ausgang. In: Caspar F (Hrsg): Problemanalyse in der Psychotherapie. Forum 13, dgvt, Tübingen: 72–87Google Scholar
  11. GROSSBERG S (1976) Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recording: Part 1 Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors. Biological Cybernetics 23, 121–134MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. GROSSBERG S (1982) Studies of Mind and Brain. Reidel, MünchenzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. HAKEN H (19833) Synergetics. An Introduction. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. HAUTZINGER M, DE JONG-MEYER R (1990) Depressionen. In: Reinecker H (Hrsg) Lehrbuch der Klinischen Psychologie Hogrefe, München, 126–165Google Scholar
  15. HAYES B (1988) Zelluläre Automaten. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Sonderband Computern, S 60–67Google Scholar
  16. HEBB D O (1949) The Organization of Behavior. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. HOFFMANN J (1986) Die Welt der Begriffe. Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. KUX F (1984) Über Erkennungsprozesse im menschlichen Gedächtnis. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 192, 18–46Google Scholar
  19. LASHLEY K (1950) In Search of the Engram. In: Hillman JR (Ed) Society of Experimental Biological Symposium No 4. Cambrige University Press, London, 478–505Google Scholar
  20. LEHNERT WG (1987) Possible Implications of Connectionism. Procedures of TINLAP-3, Las Cruces, pp 78–83Google Scholar
  21. LEWINSOHN PM (1974) A Behavioral Approach to Depression. In: Friedman RI, Katz MM (Eds) The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research. Wiley, Washington DC, pp 157–178Google Scholar
  22. LEWINSOHN PM, HOBERMAN HM, TERI L, HAUTZINGER M (1985) An integrative Theory of Depression. In: Reiss S, Bootzin RR (Eds): Theoretical Issues in Behavior Therapy. Academic Press, New York, pp 331–359Google Scholar
  23. MARR D, POGGIO T (1976) Cooperative Computation of Stereo Disparity. Science 194, pp 283–287ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MCCULLOCH WS, PITTS W (1943) A logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity. Bulletin Mathematics Biophysics 5, pp 115–133MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. MINSKY M (1975) A Framework for Representing Knowledge. In: Winston PH (Ed), The Psychology of Computer Vision. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. MINSKY M, PAPERT S (1969) Perceptrons. MIT Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. MOWRER OH (1960) Learing Theory and Behavior. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. NEWELL A (1973) Production Systems: Models of Control Structure. In: Chase WG (Ed), Visual Information Processing. Academic Press, New York, pp 463–526Google Scholar
  29. OHLSEN S, LANGLEY P (1986) PRISM: Tutorial and Manual Technical Report. University of California Department of Information & Computer Science, IrvineGoogle Scholar
  30. POST EL (1943) Formal Reductions of the General Combinatorial Decision Problem. American Journal of Mathematics 65, pp 197–215MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. QUILLIAN MR (1966) Semantic Memory. Bolt, Beranek and Newman, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. QUILLIAN MR (1969) The Teachable Language Comprehender. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 12, pp 459–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. REICHERTS M (1988) Diagnostik der Belastungsverarbeitung. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  34. REITER L (1988) Auf der Suche nach einer systemischen Sicht depressiver Störungen. In: Reiter L, Brunner EJ, Reiter-Theil S (Hrsg): Von der Familientherapie zur systemischen Perspektive. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  35. ROSENBLATT F (1959) Two Theorems of Statistical Separability in the Perceptron. In: Mechanisation of Thought Processes. Proceedings of a Symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, Nov 1958, HM Stationary Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. ROSENBLATT F (1962) Principles of Neurodynamics. Spartan, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. RUMELHART DE, MCCLELLAND JL, PDP RESEARCH GROUP (1986) Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. Vol 1 Foundations. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. SAUERS R, FARRELL R (1982) GRAPES User’s Manual. Carnegie-Mellon University Press, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  39. SCHANK R C, ABELSON R (1977) Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Erlbaum, HillsdalezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. SCHIEPEK G (1986) Systemische Diagnostik in der klinischen Psychologie. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  41. SCHIEPEK G, SCHAUB H (1991) Als die Theorien laufen lernten. Ein Simulationsmodell zur Depressionsentwicklung. In: Schiepek G: Systemtheorie der klinischen Psychologie. Vieweg, Braunschweig, S 221–305Google Scholar
  42. SCHMALHOFER F, PLOSON P G (1986) A Production System Model for Human Problem Solving. Psychological Research 48, pp 133–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. SCHUSTER H G (1988) Deterministic Chaos. VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  44. SEIFRITZ W (1987) Wacshtum, Rückkopplung ubd Chaos. Hauser, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  45. SMITH EE, SHOBEN EJ, RIPS LJ (1974) Structure and Process in Semantic Memory A Featural Model for Semantic Decisions. Psychological Review 81, pp 214–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. STROHSCHNEIDER S, SCHAUB H (1991) Konnektionismus und kognitive Psychologie. Systeme, 2, S 132–152Google Scholar
  47. TOFFOLI T, MARGOLUS N (1987) Cellular Automata Machines. A New Environment for Modelling. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  48. TSCHACHER W (1990) Interaktion in selbstorganisierten Systemen Asanger, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  49. TULVING E (1972) Episodic and Semantic Memory. In: Tulving E, Donaldson W (Eds). Organization of Memory. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 381–403Google Scholar
  50. WEIZENBAUM J (1966) Eliza — A Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication between Man and Machine. Communications of the ACM 9, pp 36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. WENDER FW (1988) Semantische Netze als Bestandteil gedächtnispsychologischer Theorien. In: Mandl H, Spada H (Hrsg), Wissenspsychologie. Psychologische Verlags-Union, München, S 55–73Google Scholar
  52. WITTCHEN UU, SASS H, ZAUDIG M, KOCHLER K (1989) Diagnostisches und Statistisches Manual psychischer Störungen (DSM-III-R) der APA. Deutsche Übersetzung der dritten Auflage. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  53. WOLFRAM S (1984) Universality and Complexity in Cellular Automata. Physica 10d; S 1–35Google Scholar
  54. ZINTERHOF P (1987) Mathematische Systemtheorie. In: Roth E (Hrsg). Sozial-wissenschaftliche Methoden. Oldenbourg, München, S 105–121Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harald Schaub
  • Günter Schiepek

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations