Advertisement

Physiological Adaptations in Decapodan Crustaceans for Life in Fresh Water

  • Michele Wheatly
Part of the Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology book series (COMPARATIVE, volume 15)

Abstract

In recent years, there have been several excellent review articles on aspects of decapod crustacean physiology including ventilation and circulation (Taylor 1982; Cameron and Mangum 1983; McMahon and Wilkens 1983; McMahon and Burggren 1988), acid-base balance (Truchot 1983; Cameron 1986), gas transport (McMahon 1981; Mangum 1983), and osmoregulation (Mantel and Farmer 1983). These have focused predominantly on the marine decapods that constitute the majority (90%) of crustacean species. While research has steadily continued on freshwater (FW) decapods such as the crayfish, this information is typically “lost” among the wealth of information on marine species. This is regrettable because FW species exhibit some of the most sophisticated physiological mechanisms among crustaceans. To name but a few, they have well-developed branchial ion uptake mechanisms, a kidney with the unique ability to produce dilute urine, and adaptations for molting and postmolt calcification in an inhospitable environment. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of FW dictate that environmental challenges such as hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia, and aerial exposure, as well as man-made problems such as acidification, are experienced more routinely by FW as opposed to marine species. In summary, therefore, it would appear that FW decapods deserve separate recognition.

Keywords

Aerial Exposure Physiological Adaptation Evaporative Water Loss Freshwater Crayfish Land Crab 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abele LG (1982) Biogeography. In: Abele LG (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 241–304Google Scholar
  2. Ahearn GA, Clay LP (1989) Kinetic analysis of electrogenic 2Na+-1H+ antiport in crustacean hepatopancreas. Am J Physiol 257:R484-R493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergmiller E, Bielawski J (1970) Role of the gills in osmotic regulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Comp Biochem Physiol 37:83–91Google Scholar
  4. Bishop JA (1967) The zoogeography of the Australian freshwater decapod Crustacea. In: Weatherly AH (ed) Australian inland waters and their fauna. Australian National Univ Press, Canberra, pp 107–122Google Scholar
  5. Blatchford JG (1971) Hemodynamics of Carcinus maenas (L.). Comp Biochem Physiol A 39:109–202Google Scholar
  6. Bock F (1925) Die Respirationsorgane von Potamobius astacus Leach. (Astacus fluviatilis Fabr.). Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Decapoden. Z Wiss Zool 124:51–117Google Scholar
  7. Born JW (1968) Osmoregulatory capacities of two Caridean shrimps, Syncaris pacifica (Atyidae) and Palaemon macrodactylus (Palaemonidae). Biol Bull 134:235–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryan GW (1960) Sodium regulation in the crayfish Astacus fluviatilis. I. The normal animal. J Exp Biol 37:83–99Google Scholar
  9. Bryan GW (1966) The metabolism of Zn and 65Zn in crabs, lobsters and freshwater crayfish. In: Aberg B, Hungate FP (eds) Radioecological concentration processes. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 1005–1016Google Scholar
  10. Bryan GW (1967) Zinc regulation in the freshwater crayfish (including some comparative copper analyses). J Exp Biol 46:281–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryan GW (1968) Concentrations of zinc and copper in the tissues of decapod crustaceans. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 48:303–321Google Scholar
  12. Bryan GW (1976) Some aspects of heavy metal tolerance in aquatic organisms. In: Lockwood APM (ed) Effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 7–34Google Scholar
  13. Burggren WW, McMahon BR (1988a) Biology of the land crabs: an introduction. In: Burggren WW, McMahon BR (eds) Biology of the land crabs. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  14. Burggren WW, McMahon BR (1988b) Circulation. In: Burggren WW, McMahon BR (eds) Biology of the land crabs. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 298–332Google Scholar
  15. Burggren WW, McMahon BR, Costerton JW (1974) Branchial water and blood-flow patterns and the structure of the gill of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Can J Zool 52:1511–1518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burtin B, Massabuau JC (1988) Switch from metabolic to ventilatory compensation of extracellular pH in crayfish. J Exp Biol 137:411–421Google Scholar
  17. Burtin B, Massabuau JC, Dejours P (1986) Ventilatory regulation of extracellular pH in crayfish exposed to changes in water titration alkalinity and NaCl concentration. Respir Physiol 65:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cameron JN (1986) Acid-base equilibria in invertebrates. In: Heisler N (ed) Acid-base regulation in animals. Elsevier, New York, pp 357–394Google Scholar
  19. Cameron JN (1989a) Acid-base homeostasis: past and present perspectives. Physiol Zool 62:845–865Google Scholar
  20. Cameron JN (1989b) Post-moult calcification in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: timing and mechanism. J Exp Biol 143:285–304Google Scholar
  21. Cameron JN (1989c) The respiratory physiology of animals. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Cameron JN, Batterton CV (1978) Antennal gland function in the freshwater blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: water, electrolyte, acid-base and ammonia excretion. J Comp Physiol 123:143–148Google Scholar
  23. Cameron JN, Mangum CP (1983) Environmental adaptations of the respiratory system: ventilation, circulation and oxygen transport. In: Vernberg FJ, Vernberg WB (eds) The biology of crustacea, vol 8. Academic Press, New York, pp 43–63Google Scholar
  24. Chaisemartin C (1964) Importance des gastroliths dans l’économie du calcium chez Astacus pallipes Lereboullet. Bilan calcique de l’exuviation. Vie Milieu 15:457–474Google Scholar
  25. Chassard-Bouchard C (1981) Rôle des lysosomes dans le phénomène de concentration du cadmium. Microanalyse par spectrographie des rayons X. C R Hebd Séances Acad Sci Paris Sér 3 293:261–265Google Scholar
  26. Copeland DE, Fitzjarrell AT (1968) The salt absorbing cells in the gills of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) with notes on modified mitochondria. Z Zellforsch 92:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cornell J (1976) Aspects of salt and water balance in two osmoconforming crabs, Libinia emarginata and Pugettia producta (Brachyura: Majidae). PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan)Google Scholar
  28. Dandy JWT, Ewer DW (1961) The water economy of three species of the amphibious crab, Potamon. Trans R Soc S Afr 363:137–162Google Scholar
  29. Dejours P, Armand J (1982) Variations de l’équilibre acid-base de l’hémolymphe d’ecrevisse en fonction des changements de certains propriétés physicochimiques de l’eau ambiante. C R Acad Sci Paris 295:509–512Google Scholar
  30. Dejours P, Armand J (1983) Acid-base balance of crayfish hemolymph: effects of simultaneous changes of ambient temperature and water oxygenation. J Comp Physiol B 149:463–468Google Scholar
  31. Dejours P, Beekenkamp H (1978) L’équilibre acid-base de l’hémolymphe au cours de la mue chez l’ecrevisse. C R Acad Sci Paris 286:1895–1898Google Scholar
  32. Dejours P, Truchot JP (1988) Respiration of the emerged shore crab at variable ambient oxygenation. J Comp Physiol 158:387–391Google Scholar
  33. Dejours P, Armand J, Beekenkamp H (1982) The effect of ambient chloride concentration changes on branchial chloride-bicarbonate exchanges and hemolymph acid-base balance of crayfish. Respir Physiol 48:375–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dickson GW, Franz R (1980) Respiration rates, ATP turnover and adenylate energy charge in excised gills of surface and cave crayfish. Comp Biochem Physiol A 65:375–380Google Scholar
  35. Dickson JS, Dillaman RM (1985) Distribution and ultrastructure of osmoregulation and respiratory filaments in the gills of the crayfish. Am Zool 24:214Google Scholar
  36. Ehrenfeld J (1974) Aspects of ionic transport mechanisms in crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. J Exp Biol 61:57–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. El Haj AJ, Innes AJ, Taylor EW (1986) Ultrastructure of the pulmonary, cutaneous and branchial gas exchange organs of the Trinidad mountain crab. J Physiol 373:84PGoogle Scholar
  38. Fingerman SW (1985) Non-metal environmental pollutants and growth. In: Wenner AD (ed) Crustacean issues 3. Factors in adult growth. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 219–234Google Scholar
  39. Fisher JM (1972) Fine structural observations on the gill filaments of the fresh-water crayfish Astacus pallipes (Lereboullet). Tissue Cell 4:287–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Flik G, Vanrijs JH, Wendelaar Bonga SE (1985) Evidence for high affinity Ca2+-ATPase activity and ATP-driven Ca2+-transport in membrane preparations of the gill epithelium of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. J Exp Biol 119:335–347Google Scholar
  41. France RL (1984) Comparative tolerance to low pH of three life stages of the crayfish Orconectes virilis. Can J Zool 62:2360–2363Google Scholar
  42. France RL (1987a) Calcium and trace metal composition of crayfish Orconectes virilis in relation to experimental lake acidification. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:107–113Google Scholar
  43. France RL (1987b) Reproductive impairment of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in response to acidification of lake 223. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:97–106Google Scholar
  44. Gaillard S, Malan A (1983) Intracellular pH regulation in response to ambient hyperoxia or hypercapnia in the crayfish. Mol Physiol 4:231–243Google Scholar
  45. Gaillard S, Malan A (1985) Intracellular pH-temperature relationship in a water breather, the crayfish. Mol Physiol 7:1–16Google Scholar
  46. Gaillard S, Rodeau JL (1987) Na+/H+ exchange in crayfish neurons: dependence on extracellular sodium and pH. J Comp Physiol 157:435–444Google Scholar
  47. Galler S, Moser H (1986) The ionic mechanism of intracellular pH regulation in crayfish muscle fibers. J Physiol (Lond) 374:137–151Google Scholar
  48. Gannon AT, DeMarco VG, Morris T, Wheatly MG (1990) Metabolism and available oxygen for cave-dwelling crayfish. Am Zool 30:110AGoogle Scholar
  49. Greenaway P (1970) Sodium regulation in freshwater mollusc Limnaea stagnalis (L) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). J Exp Biol 53:147–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Greenaway P (1972) Calcium regulation in the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). I. Calcium balance in the intermoult animal. J Exp Biol 57:417–487Google Scholar
  51. Greenaway P (1974a) Total body calcium and haemolymph calcium concentrations in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). J Exp Biol 61:19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Greenaway P (1974b) Calcium balance at the premoult stage of the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). J Exp Biol 61:27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Greenaway P (1974c) Calcium balance at the postmoult stage of the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). J Exp Biol 61:35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Greenaway P (1979) Fresh water invertebrates. In: Maloiy GMO (ed) Comparative physiology of osmoregulation in animals. Academic Press, London, pp 117–173Google Scholar
  55. Greenaway P (1980) Water balance and urine production in the Australian arid-zone crab Holthuisana transversa. J Exp Biol 87:237–246Google Scholar
  56. Greenaway P (1981) Sodium regulation in the freshwater/land crab Holthuisana transversa. J Comp Physiol B142:451–456Google Scholar
  57. Greenaway P (1984) The relative importance of the gills and lungs in the gas exchange of amphibious crabs of the genus Holthuisana. Aust J Zool 32:1–6Google Scholar
  58. Greenaway P (1985) Calcium balance and moulting in the crustacea. Biol Rev 60:425–454Google Scholar
  59. Greenaway P (1988) Ion and water balance. In: Burggren WW, McMahon BR (eds) Biology of the land crabs. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 211–248Google Scholar
  60. Greenaway P, MacMillen RE (1978) Salt and water balance in the terrestrial phase of the inland crab Holthuisana (Austrothelphusa) transversa Martens (Parathelphusoidea: Sundathelphusidae). Physiol Zool 51:217–229Google Scholar
  61. Greenaway P, Taylor HH (1976) Aerial gas exchange in Australian arid-zone crab Parathelphusa transversa Von Martens. Nature (Lond) 262:711–713Google Scholar
  62. Greenaway P, Bonaventura J, Taylor HH (1983a) Aquatic gas exchange in the freshwater/land crab Holthuisana transversa. J Exp Biol 103:225–236Google Scholar
  63. Greenaway P, Taylor HH, Bonaventura J (1983b) Aerial gas exchange in Australian freshwater/land crabs of the genus Holthuisana. J Exp Biol 103:237–251Google Scholar
  64. Harris RR (1975) Urine production rate and urinary sodium loss in the fresh water crab Potamon edulis. J Comp Physiol 96:143–153Google Scholar
  65. Harris RR, Micallef H (1971) Osmotic and ionic regulation in Potamon edulis, a fresh water crab from Malta. Comp Biochem Physiol A 38:769–776Google Scholar
  66. Hassall CH (1979) Respiratory physiology of the crayfish Procambarus clarki. MSc Thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta Canada.Google Scholar
  67. Henry RP (1984) The role of carbonic anhydrase in blood ion and acid-base regulation. Am Zool 24:241–251Google Scholar
  68. Henry RP, Cameron JN (1982) The distribution and partial characterization of carbonic anhydrase in selected aquatic and terrestrial decapod crustaceans. J Exp Zool 221:309–321Google Scholar
  69. Henry RP, Wheatly MG (1992) Interaction of respiration, ion regulation, and acid-base balance in marine crabs. Am Zool 32:407–416Google Scholar
  70. Hughes GM, Knights B, Scammel CA (1969) The distribution of PO2 and hydrostatic pressure changes within the branchial chambers of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. J Exp Biol 51:203–220Google Scholar
  71. Huxley TH (1879) The crayfish. Kegan, Paul, Trench, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Innes AJ, Taylor EW (1986) The evolution of air-breathing in crustaceans: a functional analysis of branchial, cutaneous, and pulmonary gas exchange. Comp Biochem Physiol A 85:621–637Google Scholar
  73. Innes AJ, Taylor EW, El Haj AJ (1987) Air-breathing in the Trinidad mountain crab: a quantum leap in the evolution of the invertebrate lung. Comp Biochem Physiol A 87:1–9Google Scholar
  74. Jarvenpaa T, Nikinmaa M, Westman K, Soivio A (1983) Effects of hypoxia on the haemolymph of the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus L., in neutral and acid water during the intermolt period. In: Goldman CR (ed) Freshwater crayfish. V. Papers from the 5th Int Symp on Freshwater crayfish. AVI, Westport CT, pp 86–97Google Scholar
  75. Jay D, Holdich DM (1981) The distribution of the crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, in British waters. Freshwater Biol 11:121–129Google Scholar
  76. Kamemoto FI, Keister SM, Spalding AE (1962) Cholinesterase activities and sodium movement in the crayfish kidney. Comp Biochem Physiol 7:81–87Google Scholar
  77. Kerley DE, Pritchard AW (1967) Osmotic regulation in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus stepwise acclimated to dilutions of seawater. Comp Biochem Physiol 20:101–113Google Scholar
  78. Kirschner LB (1979) Control mechanisms in crustaceans and fishes. In: Gilles R (ed) Mechanisms of osmoregulation in animals. Wiley Interscience, Chichester, pp 157–222Google Scholar
  79. Kirschner LB, Greenwald L, Kerstetter TH (1973) Effect of amiloride on sodium transfer across body surface of freshwater animals. Am J Physiol 224:832–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Larimer JL, Gold AH (1961) Responses of the crayfish, Procambarus simulans, to respiratory stress. Physiol Zool 134:167–176Google Scholar
  81. Leivestad H, Hendrey G, Muniz IP, Snekvik E (1976) Effects of acid precipitation on freshwater organisms. In: Braekke FH (ed) Impact of acid precipitation on forest and freshwater ecosystems in Norway. SNSF Project FR6/76, Oslo, pp 87–111Google Scholar
  82. Lowenstam HA, Weiner S (1989) On biomineralization. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 120–122Google Scholar
  83. Lowery RS (1988) Growth, moulting and reproduction. In: Holdich DM, Lowery RS (eds) Freshwater crayfish: biology, management and exploitation. Croom Helm, London, pp 83–113Google Scholar
  84. Lutz PL (1969) Salt and water balance in the West African fresh water/land crab Sudanonautes africanus africanus and the effects of desiccation. Comp Biochem Physiol 30:469–480Google Scholar
  85. Malley DF (1980) Decreased survival and calcium uptake by the crayfish Orconectes virilis in low pH. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:364–372Google Scholar
  86. Malley DF, Chang PSS (1985) Effects of aluminum and acid on calcium uptake by the crayfish Orconectes virilis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 14:739–747Google Scholar
  87. Maluf NSR (1941) Secretion of inulin, xylose, and dyes and its bearing on the manner of urine formation by the kidney of the crayfish. Biol Bull 8:235–260Google Scholar
  88. Mangum CP (1983) Oxygen transport in the blood. In: Mantel LH (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 5. Academic Press, London, pp 373–429Google Scholar
  89. Mangum CP (1985) Molting in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: a collaborative study of intermediary metabolism, respiration and cardiovascular function, and ion transport. Preface. J Crustacean Biol 5:185–187Google Scholar
  90. Mantel LH, Farmer LL (1983) Osmotic and ionic regulation. In: Mantel LH (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 5. Academic Press, London, pp 53–161Google Scholar
  91. Massabuau JC, Burtin B (1984) Regulation of oxygen consumption in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus at different levels of oxygenation: role of peripheral 02 chemoreception. J Comp Physiol 155:43–49Google Scholar
  92. Massabuau JC, Burtin B (1985) Ventilatory CO2 reflex response in hypoxic crayfish Astacus leptodactylus acclimated to 20°C. J Comp Physiol 156:115–118Google Scholar
  93. Massabuau JC, Eclancher B, Dejours P (1980) Ventilatory reflex response to hyperoxia in the crayfish, Astacus pallipes. J Comp Physiol 140:193–198Google Scholar
  94. Maynard DM (1960) Circulation and heart function. In: Wolverkamp HP, Waterman TH (eds) The physiology of crustacea, vol I. Academic Press, New York, pp 161–226Google Scholar
  95. McLaughlin PA (1983) Internal anatomy. In: Mantel LH (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 5. Academic Press, London, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  96. McMahon BR (1981) Oxygen uptake and acid-base balance during activity in decapod crustaceans. In: Herreid CF II, Fourtner CR (eds) Locomotion and energetics in arthropods. Plenum Press, New York, pp 299–335Google Scholar
  97. McMahon BR, Burggren WW (1988) Respiration. In: Burggren WW, McMahon BR (eds) Biology of the land crabs. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 249–297Google Scholar
  98. McMahon BR, Hassall CD (1979) Ventilation and oxygen transport in resting and active crayfish acclimated to cool temperature. Physiologist 22(4):85Google Scholar
  99. McMahon BR, Wilkens JL (1983) Ventilation, perfusion, and oxygen uptake. In: Mantel LH (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 5. Academic Press, London, pp 289–372Google Scholar
  100. McMahon BR, Wilkes PRH (1983) Emergence responses and aerial ventilation in normoxic and hypoxic crayfish Orconectes rusticus. Physiol Zool 56:133–141Google Scholar
  101. McMahon BR, Burggren WW, Wilkens JL (1974) Respiratory responses to long-term hypoxia stress in the crayfish Orconectes virilis. J Exp Biol 60:195–206Google Scholar
  102. McWhinnie MA (1962) Gastrolith growth and calcium shifts in the freshwater crayfish Orconectes virilis. Comp Biochem Physiol 7:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Moody Jr WJ (1980) Appearance of calcium action potentials in crayfish slow muscle fibres under conditions of low intracellular pH. J Physiol (Lond) 302:335–346Google Scholar
  104. Moody Jr WJ (1981) The ionic mechanism of intracellular pH regulation in crayfish neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 316:293–308Google Scholar
  105. Morgan DO, McMahon BR (1982) Acid tolerance and effects of sublethal acid exposure on ionoregulation and acid-base status in two crayfish Procambarus clarki and Orconectes rusticus. J Exp Biol 97:241–252Google Scholar
  106. Morris S, Tyler-Jones R, Taylor EW (1986a) The regulation of haemocyanin oxygen affinity during emersion of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. I. An in vitro investigation of the interactive effects of calcium and l-lactate on oxygen affinity. J Exp Biol 121:315–326Google Scholar
  107. Morris S, Tyler-Jones R, Bridges CR, Taylor EW (1986b) The regulation of haemocyanin oxygen affinity during emersion of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. II. An investigation of in vivo changes in oxygen affinity. J Exp Biol 121:327–337Google Scholar
  108. Morris S, Bridges CR, Grieshaber MK (1987) The regulation of haemocyanin oxygen affinity during emersion of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. III. The dependence of Ca2+-haemocyanin binding on the concentration of l-lactate. J Exp Biol 133:339–352Google Scholar
  109. Morris S, Greenaway P, McMahon BR (1988) Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by the haemocyanin of an amphibious crab, Holthuisana transversa. J Comp Physiol 157:873–882Google Scholar
  110. Moshiri GA, Goldman CR, Godshalk GL, Mull DR (1970) The effect of variations in oxygen tension on certain aspects of respiratory metabolism in Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) (Crustacea: Decapoda). Physiol Zool 43:23–29Google Scholar
  111. Muncy RJ, Oliver AD (1963) Toxicity of ten insecticides to the red crawfish Procambarus clarki (Girard). Trans Am Fish Soc 92:428–431Google Scholar
  112. Mykles DL (1980) The mechanism of fluid absorption at ecdysis in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. J Exp Biol 84:89–101Google Scholar
  113. Ogura K (1959) Midgut gland cells accumulating iron or copper in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Ann Zool Jpn 32:133–142Google Scholar
  114. Ortmann AE (1902) The geographical distribution of freshwater decapods and its bearing upon ancient geography. Proc Am Philos Soc 41:267–400Google Scholar
  115. Parry G (1957) Osmoregulation in some fresh water prawns. J Exp Biol 34:417–423Google Scholar
  116. Parry G, Potts WTW (1965) Sodium balance in the fresh water prawn Palaemonetes antennarius. J Exp Biol 42:415–421Google Scholar
  117. Pennak RW (1989) Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. Wiley, New York, 628ppGoogle Scholar
  118. Peterson DR, Loizzi RF (1974) Ultrastructure of the crayfish kidney coelomosac, labyrinth, nephridial canal. J Morphol 142:241–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rainbow PS (1988) The significance of trace metal concentrations in decapods. In: Fincham AA, Rainbow PS (eds) Aspects of decapod crustacean biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 291–313Google Scholar
  120. Riegel JA (1963) Micropuncture studies of chloride concentration and osmotic pressure in the crayfish antennal gland. J Exp Biol 40:487–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Riegel JA (1968) Analysis of the distribution of sodium, potassium and osmotic pressure in the urine of crayfishes. J Exp Biol 48:587–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Riegel JA (1972) Comparative physiology of renal excretion. Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  123. Rodeau JL (1982) L’état acid-base intracellulaire: analyse Théorique appliquée à l’érythrocyte des Mammifères et étude expérimentale des cellules nerveuses et musculaires des Crustacés. Thèse Etat Sciences, L’université Louis Pasteur de StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  124. Roer R, Dillaman R (1984) The structure and calcification of the crustacean cuticle. Am Zool 24:893–909Google Scholar
  125. Rutledge PS (1981) Effects of temperature acclimation on crayfish haemocyanin oxygen binding. Am J Physiol 240:R93-R98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rutledge PS, Pritchard AW (1981) Scope for activity in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Am J Physiol 240:R87-R92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schram FR (1982) The fossil record and evolution of Crustacea. In: Abele LG (ed) The biology of Crustacea; systematics, the fossil record and biogeography, vol 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 93–147Google Scholar
  128. Shaw J (1959a) Salt and water balance in the East African fresh-water crab, Potamon niloticus (M. Edw.). J Exp Biol 36:157–176Google Scholar
  129. Shaw J (1959b) The absorption of sodium ions by the crayfish, Astacus pallipes Lereboullet. I. The effect of external and internal sodium concentration. J Exp Biol 36:126–144Google Scholar
  130. Shaw J (1960a) The absorption of sodium ions by the crayfish Astacus pallipes. II. The effect of the external anion. J Exp Biol 37:534–547Google Scholar
  131. Shaw J (1960b) The absorption of sodium ions by the crayfish Astacus pallipes. III. The effect of other cations in the external solution. J Exp Biol 37:557–572Google Scholar
  132. Shaw J (1961) Sodium balance in Eriocheir sinensis (M. Edw.). The adaptation of the Crustacea to fresh water. J Exp Biol 38:153–162Google Scholar
  133. Shaw J (1964) The control of salt balance in the Crustacea. Symp Soc Exp Biol 18:237–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Shetlar RE, Towle DW (1989) Electrogenic sodium-proton exchange in membrane vesicles from crab (Carcinus maenas) gill. Am J Physiol 257:R924-R933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Short TM, Haswell MS (1979) Ionic and osmotic adjustments of the crayfish Orconectes immunis in response to dilute external concentration of sodium sulfate and choline chloride. Am Zool 19:906Google Scholar
  136. Simkiss K, Wilbur KM (1989) Biomineralization. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 205–289Google Scholar
  137. Sinha NP, Dejours P (1980) Ventilation and blood acid-base balance of the crayfish as functions of water oxygenation (40–1500 Torr). Comp Biochem Physiol A 65:427–432Google Scholar
  138. Sparkes S, Greenaway P (1984) The haemolymph as a storage site for cuticular ions during premoult in the freshwater/land crab Holthuisana transversa. J Exp Biol 113:43–54Google Scholar
  139. Sutcliffe DW (1975) Sodium uptake and loss in Crangonyx pseudogracilis (Amphipoda) and some other crustaceans. Comp Biochem Physiol A 52:255–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Swain R, Marker PF, Richardson AMM (1987) Respiratory responses to hypoxia in stream-dwelling (Astacopsis franklinii) and burrowing (Parastacoides tasmanicus) parastacid crayfish. Comp Biochem Physiol A 87:813–817Google Scholar
  141. Swain R, Marker PF, Richardson AMM (1988) Comparison of the gill morphology and branchial chambers in two fresh-water crayfishes from Tasmania: Astacopsis franklinii and Parastacoides tasmanicus. J Crustacean Biol 8:355–363Google Scholar
  142. Taylor EW (1981) Some effects of temperature on respiration in decapodan crustaceans. J Therm Biol 6:239–248Google Scholar
  143. Taylor EW (1982) Control and co-ordination of ventilation and circulation in crustaceans: responses to hypoxia and exercise. J Exp Biol 100:289–319Google Scholar
  144. Taylor EW, Wheatly MG (1980) Ventilation, heart rate and respiratory gas exchange in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) submerged in normoxic water and following 3 h exposure in air at 15°C. J Comp Physiol 138:67–78Google Scholar
  145. Taylor EW, Wheatly MG (1981) The effect of long-term aerial exposure on heart rate, ventilation, respiratory gas exchange and acid-base status in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. J Exp Biol 92:109–124Google Scholar
  146. Taylor EW, Tyler-Jones R, Wheatly MG (1987) The effects of aerial exposure on the distribution of body water and ions in the freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). J Exp Biol 128:307–322Google Scholar
  147. Taylor HH, Greenaway P (1979) The structure of the gills and lungs of the arid-zone crab, Holthuisana (Austrothelphusa) transversa (Martens) (Sundathelphusidae: Brachyura) including observations on arterial vessels within the gills. J Zool (Lond) 189:359–384Google Scholar
  148. Taylor HH, Greenaway P (1984) The role of the gills and branchiostegites in gas exchange in a bimodally breathing crab, Holthuisana transversa: evidence for a facultative change in the distribution of the respiratory circulation. J Exp Biol 111:103–122Google Scholar
  149. Taylor HH, Taylor, EW (1986) Observations of valve-like structures and evidence for rectification of flow within the gill lamellae of the crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea, Decapoda). Zoomorphology 106:1–11Google Scholar
  150. Travis DF (1960) The deposition of skeletal structures in the Crustacea. I. The histology of the gastrolith in the crayfish, Orconectes (Cambarus) virilis Hagen-Decapoda. Biol Bull 118:137–149Google Scholar
  151. Travis DF (1963) Structural features of mineralization from tissues to macromolecular levels of organization in the decapod crustacea. Ann N Y Acad Sci 109:177–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Truchot JP (1983) Regulation of acid-base balance. In: Mantel LH (ed) The biology of crustacea, vol 5. Academic Press, London, pp 431–457Google Scholar
  153. Truchot JP (1987) Comparative aspects of extracellular acid-base balance. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 248ppGoogle Scholar
  154. Tyler-Jones R, Taylor EW (1986) Urine flow and the role of the antennal glands in water balance during aerial exposure in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). J Comp Physiol B 156:529–535Google Scholar
  155. Tyler-Jones R, Taylor EW (1988) Analysis of haemolymph and muscle acid-base status during aerial exposure in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. J Exp Biol 134:409–422Google Scholar
  156. Vernberg FJ (1983) Respiratory adaptations. In: Vernberg FJ, Vernberg WB (eds) The biology of crustacea, vol 8. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  157. Walsh PJ, Milligan CL (1989) Coordination of metabolic and intracellular acid-base status: ionic regulation and metabolic consequences. Can J Zool 67:2994–3004Google Scholar
  158. Wheatly MG (1985a) Free amino acid and inorganic ion regulation in the muscle and haemolymph of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) in relation to the molting cycle. J Crustacean Biol 5:223–233Google Scholar
  159. Wheatly MG (1985b) The role of the antennal gland in ion and acid-base regulation during hyposaline exposure of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister (Dana). J Comp Physiol B 155:445–454Google Scholar
  160. Wheatly MG (1989) Physiological responses of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) to environmental hyperoxia. I. Extracellular acid-base and electrolyte status and transbranchial exchange. J Exp Biol 143:33–51Google Scholar
  161. Wheatly MG (1990) Postmolt electrolyte regulation in crayfish: Ca budget, hemolymph ions and tissue Ca ATPase. Am Zool 30:63AGoogle Scholar
  162. Wheatly MG (1993) An overview of electrolyte regulation in the freshwater crayfish throughout the molting cycle. In: Romaire RP (ed) Freshwater crayfish, vol 8. (in press)Google Scholar
  163. Wheatly MG, Gannon AT (1993) The effect of external electrolytes on postmolt calcification in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard). In: Holdich DM (ed) Freshwater crayfish, vol 9. (in press)Google Scholar
  164. Wheatly MG, Henry RP (1987) Branchial and antennal gland Na+/K+-dependent ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activity during salinity acclimation of the euryhaline crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. J Exp Biol 133:73–86Google Scholar
  165. Wheatly MG, Ignaszewski LA (1990) Electrolyte and gas exchange during the molting cycle of a freshwater crayfish. J Exp Biol 151:469–483Google Scholar
  166. Wheatly MG, Taylor EW (1981) The effect of progressive hypoxia on heart rate, ventilation, respiratory gas exchange and acid-base status in the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. J Exp Biol 92:125–141Google Scholar
  167. Wheatly MG, Toop T (1989) Physiological responses of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) to environmental hyperoxia II. The role of the antennal gland. J Exp Biol 143:53–70Google Scholar
  168. Wheatly MG, Toop T, Morrison RJ, Yow LC (1991) Physiological responses of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) to environmental hyperoxia. III. Intracellular acid-base balance. Physiol Zool 64:323–343Google Scholar
  169. Wilkes PRH, McMahon BR (1982a) Effect of maintained hypoxic exposure on the crayfish Orconectes rusticus. I. Ventilatory, acid-base and cardiovascular adjustment. J Exp Biol 98:119–137Google Scholar
  170. Wilkes PRH, McMahon BR (1982b) Effect of maintained hypoxic exposure on the crayfish Orconectes rusticus. II. Modulation of haemocyanin oxygen affinity. J Exp Biol 98:139–149Google Scholar
  171. Willig A, Keller R (1973) Molting hormone content, cuticle growth and gastrolith growth in the molt cycle of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. J Comp Physiol 86: 377–388Google Scholar
  172. Wood CM, Boutilier RG (1985) Osmoregulation, ionic exchange, blood chemistry, and nitrogenous waste excretion in the land crab Cardisoma carnifex: a field and laboratory study. Biol Bull 169:267–290Google Scholar
  173. Wood CM, Rogano MS (1986) Physiological responses to acid stress in crayfish (Orconectes): haemolymph ions, acid-base status, and exchanges with the environment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 43:1017–1026Google Scholar
  174. Zanotto FP, Wheatly MG (1990) Postmolt calcification in crayfish as a function of ambient pH in normal and decarbonated fresh water. Physiologist 33(4):A37Google Scholar
  175. Zanotto FP, Wheatly MG (1993a) The effect of pH on postmolt calcification and ion regulation in the freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). In: Romaire RP (ed) Freshwater crayfish, vol 8. (in press)Google Scholar
  176. Zanotto FP, Wheatly MG (1993b) The effect of ambient pH on electrolyte regulation during postmoult in freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii. J Exp Biol (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Wheatly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations