Opioid Receptor Regulation
The actions of opiates and opioid peptides upon nervous tissue are mediated by μ-, δ, and κ-opioid receptors and (in the case of σ-opioids) the PCP site of the NMD A receptor (for a review see Chap. 1). The three opioid receptors exhibit different ligand selectivities, strikingly different neuroanatomical patterns, distinct physiological and behavioral profiles, and differing sensitivities to naloxone (or naltrexone) antagonism. In the central nervous system (CNS) these receptors are activated by three classes of structurally related peptides, β-endorphin, the enkephalins, and the dynorphin-related peptides, encoded by three different genes. The observation that opiate analgesics produce tolerance and dependence suggests that opioid systems can undergo plastic changes. This chapter focuses on studies of the regulation of μ- and δ-opioid receptors. A particular emphasis is placed upon examination of mechanisms by which chronic treatment of opioid drugs quantitatively regulates opioid receptors in adult, embryonic, and neonatal brain.
KeywordsOpioid Receptor Opioid Peptide Opiate Receptor Chronic Morphine Electroconvulsive Shock
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