Advertisement

Gene Transfer via Transformation in Soil/Sediment Environments

  • M. G. Lorenz

Abstract

Genes of prokaryotes can be transferred from one cell to another by three distinct parasexual processes. Two of them are accomplished by intracellular “parasites”: bacteriophages can transport genes (transduction) and plasmids can promote DNA transfer during cell contact (conjugation). The third parasexual process is genetic transformation during which free DNA is taken up by cells. This DNA uptake is controlled by bacterial genes located on the chromosome. In the past decades the physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology of the three transfer mechanisms have been the subject of a vast number of studies. Many principles and details have been elucidated. However, as yet there is no definite answer to the question whether conjugation, transduction and transformation take place in natural bacterial habitats and, if so, what the effects are on the dynamics of natural bacterial populations.

Keywords

Genetic Transformation Natural Transformation Groundwater Aquifer Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus Pseudomonas Stutzeri 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Borenstein S, Ephrati-Elizur E (1969) Spontaneous release of DNA in sequential genetic order by Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol 45:137–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brun S, Reipschläger K, Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1992) Characterization of natural transformation of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by chromosomal and plasmid DNA. Microbial Rel (this issue)Google Scholar
  3. Canosi C, Iglesias A, Trautner TA (1981) Plasmid transformation in Bacillus subtilis: effects of insertion of Bacillus subtilis DNA into plasmid pC194. Mol Gen Genet 181:434–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ganesan AT (1982) Uptake, restriction, modification and recombination of DNA molecules during transformation in B. subtilis. In Ganesan AT, Chang S, Hoch JA (eds), Molecular cloning and gene regulation in bacilli. Academic Press, New York, pp 261–268Google Scholar
  5. Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1987) Adsorption of DNA to sand and variable degradation rates of adsorbed DNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:2948–2952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1990) Natural genetic transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri by sand-adsorbed DNA. Arch Microbiol 154:380–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1991) High frequency of natural genetic transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri in soil extract supplemented with a carbon/energy and phosphorus source. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:1246–1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lorenz MG, Aardema BW, Wackernagel W (1988) Highly efficient genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis attached to sand grains. J Gen Microbiol 134:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lorenz MG, Gerjets D, Wackernagel W (1991) Release of transforming plasmid and chromosomal DNA from two cultured soil bacteria. Arch Microbiol 156:319–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lorenz MG, Reipschläger K, Wackernagel W (1992) Plasmid transformation of naturally competent Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in non-sterile soil extract and groundwater. Arch Microbiol 157 (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Orrego C, Arnaud M, Halvorson HO (1978) Bacillus subtilis 168 genetic transformation mediated by outgrowing spores: necessity for cell contact. J Bacteriol 134:973–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Paul JH, Frischer ME, Thurmond JM (1991) Gene transfer in marine water column and sediment microcosms by natural plasmid transformation. Appl Environ. Microbiol 57:1509–1515Google Scholar
  13. Rochelle PA, Day MJ, Fry JC (1988) Occurrence, transfer and mobilisation in epilithic strains of Acinetobacter of mercury resistance plasmids capable of transformation. J Gen Microbiol 134:2933–2941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Romanowski G, Lorenz MG, Wackernagel W (1991) Adsorption of plasmid DNA to mineral surfaces and protection against DNasel. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:1057–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Stewart GJ, Sinigalliano CD (1990) Detection of horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation in native and introduced species of bacteria in marine and synthetic sediments. Appl Environ. Microbiol 56:1818–1824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Stewart GJ, Carlson CA, Ingraham JL (1983) Evidence for an active role of donor cells in natural transformation of Pseudomonas stützen. J Bacteriol 156:30–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Wackernagel W, Romanowski G, Lorenz MG (1992) Studies on gene flux by free bacterial DNA in soil, sediment and groundwater aquifer. In Stewart-Tull DES, Sussman M (eds), The release of genetically engineered microorganisms. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Lorenz
    • 1
  1. 1.Genetik, Fachbereich BiologieUniversität OldenburgOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations