Neopterin, Interferon-γ, and Immunodeficiency States
Concentrations of neopterin (D-erythro-6-trihydroxypropylpterin) in body fluids indicate the activation of cellular immunity in patients. In vitro, human macrophages release large amounts of neopterin on stimulation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) [1,8]. Other cytokines, e.g., tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are capable of further enhancing the IFN-γ-induced formation of neopterin. Neopterin concentrations correlate with the extent and the activity of disorders in which cell-mediated immune stimulation has a role (Table 1). In allograft recipients, neopterin concentrations rise early during the course of rejection episodes. Increasing neopterin is among the first signs of infections by viruses, occurring days or weeks before antibody seroconversion becomes measurable. In autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, neopterin levels correlate with the extent and activity of the disease. Neopterin levels are of predictive significance in patients with, for example, certain types of malignancy, multiple trauma, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Multiple Trauma Chronic Inflammatory Disorder Neopterin Level
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