Monitoring pp 18-32 | Cite as

Monitoring Cardiac Output Continuously in the Operating Room and Intensive Care Unit

  • K. H. Wesseling
  • B. de Wit
  • J. J. Settels
  • J. R. C. Jansen
  • J. J. Schreuder
Part of the Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine book series (A+I, volume 224)


In a cardiac cycle cardiac outflow varies between zero in diastole and a certain peak flow in systole. Respiration and mechanical ventilation of the lungs cause a change in venous return and, therefore, in the filling and emptying of the ventricles, further modulating outflow in synchrony with respiration [14, 35]. In addition, various autonomic reflexes and reactions to stimuli such as pain, drugs, blood loss, hemodilution and psychological and physical stress also modulate cardiac output, rate and stroke volume. Finally, in disease cardiac arrhythmias may cause strong beat-to-beat modulation of stroke volume.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. H. Wesseling
  • B. de Wit
  • J. J. Settels
  • J. R. C. Jansen
  • J. J. Schreuder

There are no affiliations available

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