Multimedia pp 70-83 | Cite as

Out of the Window: A Multi-Medium

  • Roger K. Took
Conference paper
Part of the EurographicSeminars book series (FOCUS COMPUTER)


This paper informally describes a presentation model for multiple media. In contrast to the display platform provided by standard window managers, this model supports richly structured media of high granularity with a wide range of visualisations and with few geometric restrictions. The full formal model (Took 1991c) also integrates graphical and textual media by allowing their arbitrary nesting without imposing a priority between them. In the implemented system Presenter, described here, the model is an objective structure which can be constructed dynamically and incrementally, and so can act as an interactive communication intermediary between users and applications. Such a presentation module is called a surface. A major benefit is that the user can directly manipulate surface objects independently of the application which created them. Such surface interaction factors a large proportion of the task of writing highly interactive applications. The UMA architecture (Took 1991b) describes how this can be achieved without sacrificing semantic feedback from the application to the surface.


User Agent Objective Structure Visible Content Computer Support Cooperative Work Multimedia Presentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adobe Systems Inc. (1987) PostScript Language Reference Manual, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Blair G., Gallagher J., Hutchinson D., Shepherd D. (eds.) (1991) Object Oriented Languages, Systems and Applications, Pitman, pp. 244–269.Google Scholar
  3. Card S. K., Henderson Jnr. A. (April 1987) A Multiple, Virtual-Workspace Interface to Support User Task Switching, in Proc CHI + GI 1987, ed. J. M. Carroll, P. P. Tanner, ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 18 (2), pp. 53–59.Google Scholar
  4. Ciccarelli E. C. (1985) Presentation Based User Interfaces (PhD Thesis), MIT.Google Scholar
  5. Cobbett A. P., Wand I. C. (September 1989) The Debugging of Large Multi-Task Ada Programs, Ada User, Volume 10, pp 122–131.Google Scholar
  6. Daly W. (1989) A Graphical Management System for Semantic, Multimedia Databases ( PhD Thesis ), University of York, 1989.Google Scholar
  7. Hoare C. A. R. (1985) Communicating Sequential Processes, Prentice-Hall International.Google Scholar
  8. ISO (July 1987a) Information Processing–Text and Office Systems: Office Document Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format, ISO DIS 8613 part 1–8.Google Scholar
  9. ISO (October 1987b) Information Processing–Computer Graphics–Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS), ISO DIS 9592–1: 1987 (E).Google Scholar
  10. McCarthy J. M., Miles V. C. (May 1990) Elaborating Communication Channels In Conferencer, in Proc IFIP WG8.4 Conference on Multi-User Interfaces and Applications, pp 181–193.Google Scholar
  11. News Manual (1987) Sun Microsystems, 1987.Google Scholar
  12. Scheifler R. W., Gettys J. (April 1986) The X Window System, ACM Trans. Graphics, 5 (2), pp. 79–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Scofield J. A. (August 1985) Editing as a Paradigm for User Interaction (PhD Thesis), Computer Science Dept., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Tech. Rep. No. 85–08–10.Google Scholar
  14. Teitelman W. (1984) A Tour Through Cedar, IEEE Software, 1 (2), pp. 44–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Took R. K. (April 1990a) Surface Interaction: A Paradigm and Model for Separating Application and Interface, in Proc CHI ’80, pp. 35–42, ACM.Google Scholar
  16. Took R. K. (1990b) Surface Interaction: Separating Direct Manipulation Interfaces from their Applications (PhD Thesis), Computer Science Department, University of York.Google Scholar
  17. Took R. K. (1991a) Integrating Inheritance and Composition in a Persistent Presentation Model for Multiple Media, Proc. Eurographics ’81.Google Scholar
  18. Took R. K. (1991b) The Active Medium: a Conceptual and Practical Architecture for Direct Manipulation Proc. HCI ’81.Google Scholar
  19. Took R. K. (June 1991c) Integrating Graphics and Text in an Objective Presentation Model, Proc. Eurographics Workshop on Formal Methods in Computer Graphics, Marina di Carrara, Italy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EUROGRAPHICS The European Association for Computer Graphics 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger K. Took

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations