Evaluation of Sperm Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 (LDH C4). Application to Semen Detection in Stains

  • R. Pawlowski
  • B. Brinkmann
Part of the Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics book series (HAEMOGENETICS, volume 4)


Lactate dehydrogenase is present in most tissues as a series of 5 tetrameric isoenzymes, but in semen 6 isoenzymes can be found. The sixth is LDH C4 or X which is specific for semen and has never been observed in any male and female tissues other than testes and spermatozoa (Wheat and Goldberg 1983).


Sperm Count Semen Sample Vaginal Swab Beta Alanin Fresh Semen 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Pawlowski
    • 1
  • B. Brinkmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Inst. of Forensic Med.Medical Academy GdanńskGdanskPoland
  2. 2.Inst. für RechtsmedizinUni. MünsterMünsterGermany

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