In Vivo Proton Spectroscopy. Experimental Aspects and Potential

  • S. R. Williams
Part of the NMR Basic Principles and Progress book series (NMR, volume 28)


The biochemical and clinical information which 1H NMR spectroscopy can give in vivo is described. The major metabolites which have been detected in vivo are considered in turn. The measurement of lactate in ischaemia and anoxia is discussed, and the complementary role of 31P spectroscopy is emphasised. The use of N-acetylaspartate as a concentration standard, and as a possible marker of neuronal cells is considered. Changes in glutamate and glutamine can be observed following hyperammonaemia, and the use of animal models and the application of such measurements to human subjects is described. Other amino acids are also discussed: taurine, γ-aminobutyrate, aspartate, glycine, alanine, histidine, anserine and carnosine. Other compounds which can be detected by 1H NMR in vivo are inositol, creatine and phosphocreatine, choline-containing compounds and fat. The future role of 1H NMR spectroscopy in vivo is considered, and it is concluded that applications to the brain will remain a major area of interest, and that in the next few years the number of clinical investigations will increase. However, examples are also given of 1H NMR of kidney, muscle and tumours. Finally, it is stressed that spectroscopy in vivo must be supported by parallel studies of isolated cells and tissues, and of biopsy samples and extracts in vitro.


Hepatic Encephalopathy Blood Ammonia Total Creatine Methyl Histidine Proton Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. R. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, Hunterian InstituteThe Royal College of Surgeons of EnglandLondonUK

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