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Kortisol und Verhalten: Der “Trier Mental Challenge Test” (TMCT) — Erste Evaluation eines neuen psychologischen Belastungstests

  • C. Kirschbaum
  • O. Diedrich
  • J. Gehrke
  • S. Wüst
  • D. Hellhammer
Chapter
  • 57 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Die Aktivität der Hypothalamus-Hypophysen-Nebennierenrinden-Achse (HHNA) des Menschen wird durch eine Vielzahl von Stimuli reguliert. Neben der Beeinflussung durch die wohlbekannte zirkadiane Rhythmik der Achsenaktivität (Weitzman et al. 1971) spielen insbesondere pharmakologische, physische und psychische Faktoren wesentliche Rollen bei der Ausschüttung von Kortisol aus den Nebennierenrinden (Mason 1968; Rose 1984; Gold et al. 1984; Fuxe et al. 1989; Luger et al. 1988; McEwen et al. 1988). Während zahlreiche pharmakologische und/oder physische Reize die Aktivität der HHNA gesunder Individuen unspezifisch heraufregulieren können, scheinen psychische Belastungssituationen die Nebennierenrinden in Abhängigkeit spezifischer Variablen zur Ausschüttung von Kortisol stimulieren. Neben den bekannten situativen Variablen Neuheit, Unvorhersagbarkeit, gespannte Antizipation, Involvierung sowie Versuche einer Streβbewältigung (Mason 1968) beeinflussen auf psychologischer Ebene personenspezifische Konstrukte das Ausmaβ des in Belastungssituationen ausgeschütteten Kortisols. In Examenssituationen beispielsweise fanden Jones et al. (1986) unterschiedliche Kortisolreaktionen zwischen Personen, welche sich als Typ A bzw. Typ B beschrieben, während Hellhammer et al. (1985) Zusammenhänge zwischen Repressor- vs. Sensitizerverhalten, Copingstrategien und der Höhe des Kortisolspiegels in der Prüfungsphase beobachteten. Die Bestimmung von Spezifitäts-bzw.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Kirschbaum
  • O. Diedrich
  • J. Gehrke
  • S. Wüst
  • D. Hellhammer

There are no affiliations available

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