The Role of Insects in Fluorine-Damaged Stands
A great many works have been published in the last 15 years on the role of phytophagous insects in forests polluted with industrial emissions. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the conditions of development, adaptation and performance of phyllophagous and xylophagous insects (referred to as phyllophages and xylophages) in forests polluted with fluorine-containing emissions is limited. The role of insects in decline of such stands is sometimes undoubtedly overestimated, especially for coniferous forests, and should be distinguished from the capacity of needles to accumulate fluorine during the whole growing period and over many years. Trees can decline in vast areas without any contribution from insects.
KeywordsMigration Fluoride Carbon Monoxide Silt Gall
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