Development pp 45-60 | Cite as

Development in Caulobacter crescentus

  • Ruth Bryan

Abstract

Caulobacters are dimorphic bacteria, with a motile phase in which the cell body is flagellated, and a sessile stage, when the cell grows a stalk. Development involves the asymmetric division of the parent stalked cell to yield one flagellated swarmer cell and one stalked cell, followed by differentiation of the swarmer cell into a stalked cell. Some of these events are the subject of this chapter. The study of Caulobacter development is facilitated by the simplicity of its cell cycle, the polar location of the organelles, and the ability to obtain synchronous swarmer cell populations.

Keywords

Codon Recombination Sedimentation Resi Methionine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ely B, Shapiro L (1984) Regulation of cell differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. In: Losick R, Shapiro L (eds) Microbial development. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 1–26.Google Scholar
  2. Poindexter JS (1964) Biological properties and classification of the Caulobacter group. Bacteriol Rev 28:231–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Pointdexter JS (1972) The caulobacters: ubiquitous unusual bacteria. Microbiol Rev 45:123–179.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Dow CS, Whittenbury R, Carr NG (1983) The “shut down” or “growth precursor” cell — an adaptation for survival in a potentially hostile environment. In: Slater JH, Whittenbury R, Wimpenny JWT (eds) Symposium of the society for general microbiology, vol 34. Microbes in their natural environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England; New York, NY, USA, pp 187–247.Google Scholar
  5. Ely B, Gerardot CJ, Fleming DL, Gomes SL, Frederikse P, Shapiro L (1986) General nonchemotactic mutants of Caulobacter crescentus. Genetics 114:717–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Macnab RM (1987) Motility and chemotaxis. In: Neidhardt FC, Ingraham J, Low KB, Magasanik B, Schaecter M, Umbarger HE (eds) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 732–759.Google Scholar
  7. Shapiro L (1985) Generation of polarity during Caulobacter differentiation. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1:173–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 3.
    Degnen ST, Newton A (1972) Chromosome replication during development in Caulobacter crescentus. J Mol Biol 64:671–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dingwall A, Shapiro L (1990) Chromosome replication rate, origin and bidirectionality as determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evinger M. Agabian N (1979) Caulobacter crescentus nucleoid: analysis of sedimentation behavior and protein composition during the cell cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:175–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marczynski G, Dingwall A, Shapiro L (1990) Plasmid and chromosomal replication and partitioning during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. J Mol Biol 212:709–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Poindexter JS, Hagenzieker JG (1981) Constriction and septation during cell division in caulobacters. Can J Microbiol 27:704–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 4.
    Bryan R, Glaser D, Shapiro L (1990) A genetic regulatory hierarchy in Caulobacter development. In: Wright TRF (ed) Advances in genetics, vol 27. Academic Press, London, pp 1–31.Google Scholar
  14. Driks A, Bryan R, Shapiro L, DeRosier DJ (1989) The organization of the Caulobacter crescentus flagellar filament. J Mol Biol 206:627–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Macnab RM (1987) Flagella. In: Neidhardt FC, Ingraham J, Low KB, Magasanik B, Schaecter M, Umbarger HE (eds) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., pp 70–83.Google Scholar
  16. Minnich SA, Ohta N, Taylor N, Newton A (1988) Role of the 25-, 27-and 29-kDa flagellins of Caulobacter crescentus in cell motility; a method for the construction of the Tn5 insertion and deletion mutants by gene replacement. J Bacteriol 170:3953–3960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Newton A (1989) Differentiation in Caulobacter flagellum development, motility and chemotaxis. In: Chater K, Hopwood DA (eds) Genetics of bacterial diversity. Academic Press, London, pp 199–222.Google Scholar
  18. Stallmeyer MJB, Hahnenberger KM, Sosinsky GE, Shapiro L, DeRosier DJ (1989) Image reconstruction of the flagellar basal body of Caulobacter crescentus. J Mol Biol 205:511–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wagenknecht T, DeRosier D (1981) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the flagellar hook from Caulobacter crescentus. J Mol Biol 151:439–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 5.
    Dingwall A, Gober JW, Shapiro L (1990) Identification of a Caulobacter basal body gene and a cis-acting site required for activation of transcription. J Bacteriol 172:6066-6076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ely B, Croft RH, Gerardot CJ (1984) Genetic mapping of genes required for motility in Caulobacter crescentus. Genetics 108:523–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ely B, Ely TW (1989) Use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis and transposition mutagenesis to estimate the minimal number of genes required for motility in Caulobacter crescentus. Genetics 123:649–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hahnenberger K, Shapiro L (1987) Identification of a gene cluster involved in flagellar basal body biogenesis in Caulobacter crescentus. J Mol Biol 194:91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson RC, Ely B (1979) Analysis of non-motile mutants of the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol 137:627–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson RC, Ferber DM, Ely B (1983) Synthesis and assembly of flagellar components by Caulobacter crescentus motility mutants. J Bacteriol 154:1137–1144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaplan JB, Dingwall A, Bryan R, Champer R, Shapiro L (1989) Temporal regulation and overlap organization of two Caulobacter flagellar genes. J Mol Biol 205:71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 6.
    Frederikse PH, Shapiro L (1989) An Escherichia coli chemoreceptor gene is temporally controlled in Caulobacter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:4061–4065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gober JW, Shapiro L (1990) Integration host factor is required for the activation of developmentally regulated genes in Caulobacter. Genes Dev 4:1494–1499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mullin DA, Newton A (1989) Ntr-like promoters and upstream regulatory sequence ftr are required for transcription of a developmentally regulated Caulobacter crescentus flagellar gene. J Bacteriol 171:3218–3227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ninfa AJ, Mullin DA, Ramakrishnan G, Newton A (1989) Escherichia coli σ54 RNA polymerase recognizes Caulobacter crescentus fibG and flbN flagellar gene promoters in vitro. J Bacteriol 171:383–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ramakrishnan G, Newton A (1990) FlbD of Caulobacter crescentus is a homologue of the NtrC(NR1) protein and activates σ54-dependent flagellar gene promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2369–2373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 7.
    Champer R, Dingwall A, Shapiro L (1987) Cascade regulation of Caulobacter flagellar and chemotaxis genes. J Mol Biol 194:71–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Newton A, Ohta N, Ramakrishnan G, Mullin D, Raymond G (1989) Genetic switching in the flagellar gene hierarchy requires negative as well as positive regulation of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:6651–6655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schoenlein PV, Ely B (1989) Characterization of strains containing mutations in the contiguous flaF,flbT, orflbA-flaG transcription unit and identification of a novel Fla phenotype in Caulobacter crescentus.J Bacteriol 171:1554–1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu H, Dingwall A, Shapiro L (1989) Negative transcriptional regulation in the Caulobacter flagellar hierarchy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:6656–6660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 8.
    Bryan R, Champer R, Gomes S, Ely B, Shapiro L (1987) Separation of temporal control and trans-acting modulation of flagellin and chemotaxis genes in Caulobacter. Mol Gen Genet206:300–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loewy ZG, Bryan RA, Reuter SH, Shapiro L (1987) Control of synthesis and positioning of a Caulobacter crescentus flagellar protein. Gene Dev 1:626–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Minnich SA, Newton A (1987) Promoter mapping and cell cycle regulation of flagellin gene transcription in Caulobacter crescentus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:1142–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sheffery M, Newton A (1981) Regulation of periodic protein synthesis in the cell cycle: control of initiation and termination of flagellar gene expression. Cell 24:49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 9.
    Millhausen M, Agabian N (1983) Caulobacter flagellin mRNA segregated asymmetrically at cell division. Nature 302:630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 10.
    Gomes SL, Shapiro L (1984) Differential expression and positioning of chemotaxis methylation proteins in Caulobacter. J Mol Biol 177:551–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nathan P, Gomes SL, Hahnenberger K, Newton A, Shapiro L (1986) Differential localization of membrane receptor chemotaxis proteins in the Caulobacter predivisional cell. J Mol Biol191:433–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 11.
    Smit J, Agabian N (1982) Caulobacter crescentus pili: analysis of production during development. Dev Biol 89:237–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 12.
    Reuter S, Shapiro L (1987) Asymmetric segregation of heatshock proteins upon cell division in Caulobacter crescentus. J Mol Biol 194:653–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 13.
    Driks A, Schoenlein PV, DeRosier DJ, Shapiro L, Ely B (1990) A Caulobacter gene involved in polar morphogenesis. J Bacteriol 172:2113–2123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Newton A, Ohta N, Huguenel E, Chen LS (1985) Approaches to the study of cell differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. In: Setlow P, Hock J (eds) The molecular biology of microbial differentiation. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 267–276.Google Scholar
  47. 14.
    O’Connell M, Henry S, Shapiro L (1986) Fatty acid degradation in Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol 168:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Poindexter JS (1987) Bacterial responses to nutrient limitation. In: Fletcher M, Gray TRG, Jones JG (eds) Symposium of the society for general microbiology, vol 41. Ecology of microbial communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 283–317.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Bryan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations