A Thermo-Mechanical Model of the Inflation and Seismicity of Volcanic Calderas: An Application to the Campi Flegrei System
A thermo-mechanical model of calderas, based on the assumption that the rocks behave as no-tension materials, is proposed. The medium surrounding the magma chamber is considered, in compression, as a non-homogeneous elastic material — with elastic moduli depending on the temperature — and incapable of sustaining any tensile stress. This assumption allows us to follow the development of fractures at the ground surface and in the subsoil. The latter can be correlated with the localization of earthquake hypocentres and with the occurrence of eruptions. A finite element analysis of the model is performed. Comparisons between the ground surface deformations, observed at Campi Flegrei during the 1982–1984 crisis, and the deformations predicted by the model are developed. The proposed model seems to give a reasonable picture of many of the complex phenomena — ground uplift, fractures of the earth surface and in the subsoil, seismic activity — that occur in the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei.
KeywordsMagma Chamber Ground Deformation Volcanic Area Gradual Fracture Deep Fracture
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