A Thermo-Mechanical Model of the Inflation and Seismicity of Volcanic Calderas: An Application to the Campi Flegrei System

  • M. Como
  • M. Lembo
Part of the IAVCEI Proceedings in Volcanology book series (VOLCANOLOGY, volume 3)


A thermo-mechanical model of calderas, based on the assumption that the rocks behave as no-tension materials, is proposed. The medium surrounding the magma chamber is considered, in compression, as a non-homogeneous elastic material — with elastic moduli depending on the temperature — and incapable of sustaining any tensile stress. This assumption allows us to follow the development of fractures at the ground surface and in the subsoil. The latter can be correlated with the localization of earthquake hypocentres and with the occurrence of eruptions. A finite element analysis of the model is performed. Comparisons between the ground surface deformations, observed at Campi Flegrei during the 1982–1984 crisis, and the deformations predicted by the model are developed. The proposed model seems to give a reasonable picture of many of the complex phenomena — ground uplift, fractures of the earth surface and in the subsoil, seismic activity — that occur in the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei.


Magma Chamber Ground Deformation Volcanic Area Gradual Fracture Deep Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armienti P, Barberi F, Bizouard H (1983) The Phlegrean Fields magma evolution within a shallow chamber. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armienti P, Barberi F, Innocenti F (1984) A model of the Phlegraean Fields magma chamber in the last 10500 years. Bull Volcanol 44-2:349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aster RC, Meyer RP, De Natale G, Zollo A, Martini M, del Pezzo E, Scarpa R, Iannuccone G (1992) Seismic Investigation of the Campi Flegrei (this vol.).Google Scholar
  4. Baidyuk BV (1969) Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Transi from Russian, Consultants Bureau, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Barberi F, Innocenti F, Lirer L, Munno R, Pescatore T (1978) The Campania Igninbrite: a major prehistoric eruption in the Neapolitan area (Italy). Bull Volcanol 41-1:1–22.Google Scholar
  6. Berrino G, Corrado G, Luongo G, Toro B (1984) Ground deformation and gravity changes accompanying the 1982 Pozzuoli uplift. Bull Volcanol 44-2:187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi R, Coradini A, Federico C, Giberti G, Sartoris G, Scandone R (1984) Modelling of surface ground deformation in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. Bull Volcanol 44-2:321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchi R, Coradini A, Federico C (1987) Modelling of surface deformation in volcanic areas: the 1970–72 and 1982–84 crises of Campi Flegrei, Italy. J Geophys Res 92:14139–14150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruni P., Chelini W, Sbrana A, Verdiani G (1985) Deep exploration of the S Vito area, Pozzuoli, Naples: Well S. Vitol. Proc 3rd Int Sem Eur Geotherm Update, Munich 29 Nov–1 Dec 1983, EUR 8853 EN, pp 390-406.Google Scholar
  10. Como M, Lembo M (1988) Sull’istituzione di un modello termomeccanico del Bradisismo Flegreo. In: Omaggio a Giulio Ceradini. Dipart Ing Strutt Geotec, Univ Roma La Sapienza, Esagrafica, Roma, pp 249-263.Google Scholar
  11. Lama RD, Vutukuri VS (1978) Handbook on mechanical properties of the rock. Trans Tech Publ, Clausthal.Google Scholar
  12. Lirer L, Luongo G, Scandone R (1987) On the volcanological evolution of Campi Flegrei. Eos Trans AGU 68:226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mogi K (1958) Relations between eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surface around them. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokio 36:99–134.Google Scholar
  14. Nadai A (1950) Theory of flow and fracture of solids. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Nunziata O, Rapolla A (1981) Interpretation of gravity and magnetic data in the Phlegrean Fields geothermal area, Naples, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 9:209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ortolani F, Pagliuca S (1984) Le lesioni nel suolo del centro storico di Pozzuoli⋯. Dipart Scie Terr, Univ Napoli.Google Scholar
  17. Parascandola A (1983) I fenomeni bradisismici del Serapeo di Pozzuoli, 1947. New printing, Genovese, Napoli.Google Scholar
  18. Romano G, Romano M (1985) Elastostatics of structures with unilateral conditions on strain and displacements. Int Conf Unilateral Probl Struct AnalInt Conf Unilateral Probl Struct Anal, Ravello, 1983, CISM, Springer Berlin Heidelserg New York, pp 315–338.Google Scholar
  19. Rosi M, Sbrana S, Principe V (1983) The Phlegrean Fields: structural evolution, volcanic history and eruptive mechanism. Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walsh JB, Decker W (1971) Surface deformation associated with volcanism. J Geophys Res76:3291–3302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zienkiewicz C, Vallapian S, King IP (1968) Stress analysis of rock as a no-tension material. Geotechnique 18:56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Como
  • M. Lembo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations