Advertisement

Preliminary Results from a Field Experiment on Volcanic Events at Kilauea Using an Array of Digital Seismographs

  • Paolo Gasparini
  • Roberto Scarpa
  • Keiiti Aki
Part of the IAVCEI Proceedings in Volcanology book series (VOLCANOLOGY, volume 3)

Abstract

We carried out a field experiment at Kilauea Volcano for two months in 1988, during which the volcano was active and generated gas-piston events, long-period events and tremors. Six three-component digital instruments recorded 200 h of useful signal and 12 GEOS 6-channel recorders collected more than 200 events with a total amount of information of about 10 gigabits. Preliminary analyses of the data revealed that seismic spectra of all these volcanic events show many narrow spectral peaks, and we were able to establish that these peaks are not due to propagation path or recording site effect but due to source effect. We also found that, the movement of gas bubbles plays an important role in the excitation of gas-piston events, and possibly also long-period events because of the similarity in spectral feature between them. We propose preliminary source models for gas-piston events, long-period events and volcanic tremor based on fluid-gas filled crack models, and discuss outstanding problems with these models.

Keywords

Lava Lake Volcanic Event Volcanic Tremor Crater Floor Volcanic Earthquake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aki K (1957) Space and time spectra of stationary stochastic waves, with special reference to microtremors. Bull Earthq R Inst 25:415–457.Google Scholar
  2. Aki K, Koyanagi R (1981) Deep volcanic tremor and magma ascent mechanism under Kilauea, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 86:7095–7109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aki K, Richards PG (1980) Quantitative seismology: theory and methods. WH Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  4. Aki K, Fehler M, Das S (1977) Source mechanism of volcanic tremor: fluid-driven crack models and their application to the 1963 Kilauea eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2:259–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aki K, Chouet B, Fehler M, Zandt G, Koyanagi R, Colp J, Hay R (1978) Seismic properties of a shallow magma reservoir in Kilauea Iki by active and passive experiments. J Geophys Res 83:2273–2282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chouet B (1985) Excitation of a buried magmatic pipe: a seismic source model for volcanic tremor. J Geophys Res 90:1881–1893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chouet B (1986) Dynamics of a fluid driven crack in three dimensions by the finite difference method. J Geophys Res 91,13:967–992.Google Scholar
  8. Chouet B (1988) Resonance of a fluid-driven crack: radiation properties and implications for the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor. J Geophys Res 93:4375–4400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chouet B, Julian BR (1985) Dynamics of an expanding fluid-filled crack. J Geophys Res 90,11:184–198.Google Scholar
  10. Crosson RS, Bame DA (1985) A spherical source model for low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. J Geophys Res 90,10:237–247.Google Scholar
  11. Dibble R (1974) Volcanic seismicity and accompanying activity of Ruapehu Volcano, New Zealand. In: Civetta L, Gasparini P, Luongo G, Rapolla A (eds) Physical volcanology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 49–86.Google Scholar
  12. Dietel C, Chouet B, Aki K, Ferrazzini V, Roberts P (1989) Data summary for dense GEOS array observations of seismic activity associated with magma transport at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep 89-113.Google Scholar
  13. Endo E, Malone S, Noson L, Weaver C (1981) Locations, magnitudes and statistics of the March 20–May 18 earthquakes sequence. USGS Prof Pap 1250:93–108.Google Scholar
  14. Fehler M, Chouet B (1982) Operation of a digital seismic network on Mount St. Helens volcano and observations of long-period seismic events that originate under the volcano. Geophys Res Lett 9:1017–1020.Google Scholar
  15. Ferrazzini V, Chouet B, Fehler M, Aki K (1990) Quantitative analysis of long-period events recorded during hydrofracture experiments at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. J Geophys Res 95:21871–21884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrazzini V, Aki K (1987) Slow waves trapped in a fluid-filled infinite crack: implication for volcanic tremor. J Geophys Res 92:9215–9223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferrick MG, Qamar A, St. Lawrence WF (1982) Source mechanism of volcanic tremor. J Geophys Res 87:8675–8683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gorshkov G (1959) Gigantic eruption of the volcano Bezymianny. Bull Volcanol 20:77–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gresta S, Imposa S, Patane D, Patane G (1987) Volcanic tremor at Mt Etna: state of the art and perspectives. Pageoph 125:1079–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guerra I, Bascio AL, Luongo G, Scarpa R (1975) Seismic activity accompanying the 1974 eruption of Mt. Etna. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 1:347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Havskov J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Singh SK, Medina F, Gutierrez C (1983) Seismic activity related to the March–Apirl, 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Geophys Res Lett 10:293–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1986) Separated two-phase flow and basaltic eruptions. J Geophys Res 92:13715–13719.Google Scholar
  23. Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1988) Laboratory models of Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions. Nature (Lond) 331:58–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Julian B (1986) Volcanic tremor: flow-induced vibration? EOS 67, 44 (Abstr) VA32A-08.Google Scholar
  25. Koyanagi RY (1968) Earthquakes from common sources beneath Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes in Hawaii from 1962 to 1965. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 600-C:120–125.Google Scholar
  26. Koyanagi RY, Chouet B, Aki K (1987) Origin of volcanic tremor in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350, 2:1221–1257.Google Scholar
  27. Kubotera A (1974) Volcanic tremor at Aso volcano. In: Civetta L, Gasparini P, Luongo G, Rapolla A (eds) Physical volcanology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 29–47.Google Scholar
  28. Latter JH (1979) Volcanological observations at Tongariro National Park, 2. Types and classification of volcanic earthquakes, 1976–1978. N Z Dep Sci Ind Res Geophys Div Wellington New Zealand 150:60.Google Scholar
  29. Mahrer KD, Mauk FJ (1987) Seismic wave motion for a new model of hydraulic fracture with induced low velocity zone. J Geophys Res 92:9293–9309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matsushima N, Nishimura Y, Suzuki A, Okada H (1987) Spectral analysis of volcanic earthquakes at Mt. Tokachi. Bull Volcanol Soc JPN 32:317–328.Google Scholar
  31. McNutt SR (1986) Observations and analysis of B-type earthquakes, explosions, and volcanic tremor at Pavlov volcano, Alaska. Bull Seismol Soc Am 76:153–175.Google Scholar
  32. Minakami T (1974) Seismology of volcanoes in Japan. In: Civetta L, Gasparini P, Luongo G, Rapolla A (eds) Physical volcanology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–28.Google Scholar
  33. Morse PM, Bolt R (1944) Sound waves in rooms. Rev Modern Phys 16,2:69–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nishi K, Nakamura S, Sodona T et al. (1988) Seismic activity of the volcano Suwanose-Jima, Tokara Islands, Japan. In: Kamo K (ed) Report of joint geophysical and geochemical observation of Suwanose-Jima. Kyoto Univ, July–August 1984, 1:1-51.Google Scholar
  35. Okada H, Nishimura Y, Maekawa T (1988) Earthquake family with low-frequency nature observed at Volcano Suwanose-Jima, Tokara Islands, south of Kyushu. In: Kamo K (ed) Report of joint geophysical and geochmical observation of Suwanose-Jima. Kyoto Univ, July–August 1984, 1:1-51.Google Scholar
  36. Roberts PM (1989) A versatile equalization circuit for increasing seismometer velocity response below the natural frequency. Bull Seismol Soc Am 79:1607–1617.Google Scholar
  37. Sassa K (1935) Volcanic micro-tremors and eruption-earthquakes. Mem Coll Sci Univ Kyoto Ser A, 18:255–293.Google Scholar
  38. Schick R, Riuscetti M (1973) An analysis of volcanic tremors at south Italian volcanoes. Z Geophys 39:247–262.Google Scholar
  39. Schick R, Cosentino M, Lombardo G, Patané G (1982) Volcanic tremor at Mount Etna. A brief description. Mem Soc Geol It 23:191–196.Google Scholar
  40. Seidl D, Schick R, Riuscetti M (1981) Volcanic tremors at Etna: a model for hydraulic origin. Bull Volcanol 44:43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sibree JO (1933) The viscosity of froth. Trans Faraday Soc 30:325–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. St. Lawrence W, Qamar A (1979) Hydraulic transients: a seismic source in volcanoes and glaciers. Science 203:654–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Swanson DA, Duffield W, Jackson D, Peterson D (1979) Chronological narrative of the 1969–71 Mauna Ulu eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1065:55.Google Scholar
  44. Tait S, Jaupart C, Vergniolle S (1989) Pressure, gas content and eruption periodicity of a shallow, crystallizing magma chamber. Earth Planet Sci Lett 92:107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tang XM, Cheng CH (1988) Wave propagation in a fluid-filled fracture — an experimental study. Geophys Res Lett 15:1463–1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wallis GB (1969) One dimensional two phase flow. McGraw Hill, New York, 408 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Wolfe EW, Garcia MO, Jackson DB, Koyanagi RY, Neal CA, Okamura AT (1987) The Pu’u O’o eruption of Kilauea Volcano, episodes 1–20, Jaunary 3, 1983, to June 8, 1984. US Geol Suv Prof Pap 1350, 1:471–508.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Gasparini
    • 1
  • Roberto Scarpa
    • 2
  • Keiiti Aki
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Geofisica e VulcanologiaUniversità di Napoli Federico IINapoliItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di FisicaUniversità Degli Studi dell’AquilaCoppito (L’Aquila)Italy
  3. 3.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations