Computer Modelling of the Immune System: Who are the “Fruitori”?

  • Franco Celada
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 66)


Fruitore is an Italian word straight from the Latin (the verb fruor means to utilize with advantage, to metaphorically harvest the fruits. I use this uncommon foreign substantive because it happens to be the most concise and precise, as compared with the English and the French (exploitateur? utiliseur? jouisseur?). Having explained the word, my assignment is to convince the reader that every experimental immunologist is a potential fruitore of the models (and will become an actual one in the near future). This was unforeseeable in the past, and I would not have written this sentence one year ago. The following factors, of which this NATO-Gulbenkian workshop is the best proof, have played into my hands. a) Theoretical immunology has been experiencing a substantial boom during the past several years, thanks to many new groups the world over joining what had been a restricted club of friends. b) The focus of many models has become more precisely coincident with that of experiments performed and discussed in conventional (classical) laboratories. c) Only in part a consequence of a) and b), the immunologists are changing their traditional apartheidlike attitude towards the theorists.


Cellular Automaton affInity Maturation Italian Word Special Feeling High Dose Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jerne, N.K. (1974) Towards a network theory of the immune system. Ann. Immunol. ( Inst. Pasteur ) 125C, 373 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Celada, F. (1989) Bricolage in Cellular Immunity. Int. Rev. Immunol. 4, 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Janeway, C. (1989) Approaching the asymptote: Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold SpringHarbor Symp. Quant. Biol. Volume LIV, 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaufmann, M.,Urbain, J., Thomas, R. (1985) J. Theoretical Biol. 114: 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Varela, F.J. (1988) Structural coupling and the origin of meaning in a simple cellular automaton. In The Semiotics of Cellular Communication in the Immune System, E.E. Sercarz, F. Celada, A.N. Mitchison, T.Tada (eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 151–161.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gardner, M. (1970) Sci. Am. 223 (Oct.), 120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gardner, M. (1971) Sci. Am. 224 (Feb.), 112–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celada, F., Seiden, P.E. (1992) A Computer Model of Cellular Interactions in the Immune System. Immun. Today (Feb.),Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seiden, P.E.,Celada, F. (1992) ( Submitted ), J. Theor. Biol.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Celada, F. (1971) The Cellular Basis of Immunologic Memory. Prog. Allergy, vol. 14, pp. 223–267, Karger, Basel (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franco Celada
    • 1
  1. 1.NYU Department of PathologyHospital for Joint DiseasesNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations