Coupled Toga Models at the Ukmo

  • M. Davey
  • S. Lawrence
  • C. Gordon
  • S. Ineson
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 6)

Abstract

Both general circulation (GCM) and intermediate ocean and atmosphere models are being used by the tropical ocean modelling group at the UK Meteorological Office to investigate interannual variability. A 13-year coupled GCM integration was completed in 1990, producing a realistic seasonal cycle but little interannual variability. Some details of year 8 of that integration are presented here, and a related hindcast experiment is discussed. An intermediate model with two active layers in the ocean and an equilibrium atmosphere is described: ocean climatology and preliminary coupled experiments are discussed.

Keywords

Convection Heat Content Expense Advection Cane 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen MR, Davey MK (1991) Empirical parameterisation of tropical ocean-atmosphere coupling: the ‘inverse Gill’ problem. Submitted to J ClimGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson DLT, McCreary JP (1985) Slowly propagating disturbances in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J Atmos Sci 42: 615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Budin G, Davey MK (1990) Intermediate models of intraseasonal and interannual waves in the tropics. J Mar Sys 1: 39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cane MA, Zebiak SE, Dolan SC (1986) Experimental forecasts of El Nino. Nature 321: 827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cox MD (1984) A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech Rep. 1, Geophys. Fluid Dyn. Lab./NOAA, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  6. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulations. Q J Roy Met Soc 106: 447–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldenberg SB, O’Brien JJ (1981) Time and space variability of tropical Pacific wind stress. Mon Weath Rev 109: 1190–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gordon C (1989) Tropical ocean-atmosphere interactions in a coupled model. Phil Trans Roy Soc London A329: 207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordon C, Corry RA (1991) A model simulation of the seasonal cycle in the tropical Pacific ocean using climatological and modeled surface forcing. J Geophys Res 96: 847–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hellerman S, Rosenstein M (1983) Normal monthly windstress over the world ocean with error estimates. J Phys Oceanog 13: 1093–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirst, AC (1989) Unstable and damped equatorial modes in simple coupled ocean- atmosphere models. J Atmos Sci 43: 606–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kraus EB, Turner JS (1967) A one dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline. Part II Tellus 19: 98–105Google Scholar
  13. Levitus S (1982) Climatological atlas of the world ocean. NOAA Prof. Pap. 13, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Boulder, Colo.Google Scholar
  14. McCreary JP, Kundu PK (1988) A numerical investigation of the Somali Current during the Southwest Monsoon. J Mar Res 46: 25–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Neelin JD, Latif M, Allaart MAF, Cane MA, Cubasch U, Gates WL, Gent PR, Ghil M, Gordon C, Lau NC, Mechoso CR, Meehl GA, Oberhuber JM, Philander SGH, Schopf PS, Sperber KR, Sterl A, Tokioka T, Tribbia J, Zebiak SE (1991) Tropical air-sea interaction in general circulation models. Climate Dyn, to appearGoogle Scholar
  16. Pacanowski R, Philander SGH (1981) Parametrization of vertical mixing in numerical models of the tropical oceans. J Phys Oceanog 11: 1443–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sausen R, Barthel K, Hasselmann K (1988) Coupled ocean-atmosphere models with flux correction. Climate Dyn 2: 154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schopf PS, Suarez MJ (1988) Vacillations in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J Atmos Sci 45: 549–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Slingo A (1985) Handbook of the Meteorological Office 11-layer atmospheric general circulation model. UKMO Tech Note DCTN 29Google Scholar
  20. Slingo A, Wilderspin RC, Smith R.N.B. (1989) The effect of improved physical pa- rameterizations on simulations of cloudiness and the Earth’s radiation budget. J Geophys Res 94: 2281–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith RNB (1990) A scheme for predicting layer clouds and their water content in a general circulation model. Q J Roy Met Soc 116: 435–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Woodruff SD, Slutz RJ, Jenne RL, Steurer PM (1987) A Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set. Bull Amer Met Soc 68: 1239–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wyrtki K, Kilonsky B (1984) Mean water and current structure during the Hawaii-to- Tahiti Shuttle Experiment. J Phys Oceanog 14: 242–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Davey
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Lawrence
    • 1
  • C. Gordon
    • 3
  • S. Ineson
    • 3
  1. 1.Clarendon LaboratoryRobert Hooke InstituteOxfordUK
  2. 2.Meteorological Office UnitUK
  3. 3.UK Meteorological OfficeHadley CentreBracknell BerksUK

Personalised recommendations