The Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Interface

  • W. James Shuttleworth
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 5)

Abstract

The Scientific Plan for GEWEX draws together and enhances a range of climate research activities which have the specific scientific objectives:
  • to determine the hydrological cycle and energy fluxes by means of global measurements of observable atmospheric and surface properties;

  • to model the global hydrological cycle and its effects on the atmosphere and oceans; and

  • to develop the ability to predict the variations of global and regional hydrological processes and water resources, and their response to environmental change.

Keywords

Clay Convection Radar Assimilation Photosynthesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. André J-C, Goutorbe J-P, Perrier A, Becker F, Besselmoulin P, Bougeault Ph, Brutsaert Y, Carlson T, Cuenca R, Gash JHC, Gelpe J, Hildebrand P, Lagouard P, Lloyd CR, Mahrt L, Mascart P, Mazaudier C, Noilhan J, Ottle C, Payen M, Phulpin T, Stull R, Shuttleworth WJ, Schmugge T, Taconet O, Tarrieu C, Thepenier RM, Valencongne Ch, Vidal-Madjar D, Weill A (1988) HAPEX-MOBILHY: First results from the special observing period. Ann Geophys 6(5): 477–492.Google Scholar
  2. Avissar R, Verstraete MM (1990) The representation of continental surface processes in atmospheric models. Rev Geophys 28: 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldocchi DD, Hutchison BA (1987) Turbulence in an almond orchard: vertical variations in turbulent statistics. Bound Lay Met 40: 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brutsaert W (1982) Evaporation into the atmosphere. D Reidel Publ. Co Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar
  5. Charney JG, Quirk WJ, Chow SH, Kornfield J (1977) A comparative study of the effects of albedo change on drought in semi-arid regions. J Atmos Sci 34: 1366–1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choudhury BJ (1991) Multispectral satellite data in the context of land surface heat balance. Rev Geophys 29: 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choudhury BJ, Monteith JL (1988) A four-layer model for the heat budget of homogeneous land surfaces. Quart J Roy Met Soc 114: 373–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clapp RB, Hornberger GM (1978) Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour Res 4: 601–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Bruin HAR (1983) A model for the Priestley-Taylor parameter. J Appl Met 22: 572–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Denmead OT, Bradley EF (1985) Flux gradient relationship in a forest canopy. In: The forest-atmosphere interaction (eds. B A Hutchison, BB Hicks), D Reidel Publ Co Dordrecht, Holland: 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickinson RE (1989a) Implications of tropical deforestation for climate: A comparison of model and observational descriptions of surface energy and hydrological balance. Phil Tran R Soc Lond B324: 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickinson RE (1989b) Modelling the effects of Amazonian deforestation on regional climate: a review. Agric For Meteorol 47: 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickinson RE, Henderson-Sellers A, Kennedy PJ, Wilson MF (1986) Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) for the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-275+STR: 69pp.Google Scholar
  14. Dickinson RE, Henderson-Sellers A (1988) Modelling tropical deforestation: a study of GCM land-surface parameterizations. Quart J R Met Soc 114: 439–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dolman AJ, Gregory D (1992) The parameterization of rainfall interception in GCMs. Submitted to Quart J Roy Met Soc (In press)Google Scholar
  16. Driedonks AGM (1981) Dynamics of the well-mixed atmospheric boudary layer. Scientific Report W.R.81–2 KNMI, de Bilt, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  17. Field RT, Fritschen L (1991) Net radiation observation, calibration and evaluation in FIFE. J Geophys Res (Submitted)Google Scholar
  18. Garratt JR (1978) Flux profile relations above tall vegetation. Quart J Roy Met Soc 104: 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gash JHC, Shuttleworth WJ, Lloyd CR, André J-C, Goutorbe J-P, Gelpe J (1989) Mi-crometeorological measurements in les Landes Forest during HAPEX-MOBILHY, Agric For Meteorol 46: 131–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geyer B, Jarvis PG (1991) A review of models of the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer Schemes (SVATS): A report to the TIGER III Committee, available from Institute of Hydrology Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  21. Goutorbe J-P (1991) A critical assessment of the S AMER network accuracy. In: Land Surface Evaporation, (eds. T J Schmugge and J-C André), 171–182, Springer Verlag New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. IGBP (1990) The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: a study of global change. The initial core projects. IGBP Stockholm (IGBP Report No. 12)Google Scholar
  23. IGPO (1991) GEWEX Continental-scale International Project (GCIP). Report of the first GCIP planning workshop, Reston, Virginia, USA, IGPO-No.1, GEWEX Project Office Washington.Google Scholar
  24. Jochum AM, Entstrasser N, Fimpel H-P, Mörl P, Rosier F, Willeke H (1990) Evaporation and energy fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer during LOTREX. Symposium on FIFE Feb. 7–9, 1990, Anaheim, Calif. Pub Amer Met Soc 177–180.Google Scholar
  25. Jones HG (1984) Plants and Microclimate. Cambridge University Press New York.Google Scholar
  26. Penman HL (1948) Natural Evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc Roy Soc Lond A193: 120–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manabe S (1969) Climate of the ocean circulation. Part I. Mon Wea Rev 97: 739–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mascart P, Taconet O, Pinty J-P, Mehrez MB (1991) Canopy resistance formulation and its effect in mesoscale models: a HAPEX perspective. Agric For Met (in press)Google Scholar
  29. Mason P J (1988) The formation of areally-averaged roughness lengths. Quart J Roy Met Soc 114: 281–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McBean G, McCarthy (1990) Narrowing the uncertainties: a scientific action plan for improved prediction of Global Change. In: Climate Change. The IPCC Scientific Assessment (eds. JT Houghton, G J Jenkins, JJ Ephraums)Google Scholar
  31. McNaughton KG, Spriggs TW (1986) A mixed-layer model for regional evaporation. Bound Layer Met 34: 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McNaughton KG, Spriggs TW (1989) An evaluation of the Priestley and Taylor equation and complementary relationship using results from a mixed-layer model of the convective boundary layer. IAHS Publ No. 177: 89–104, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  33. Monteith JL (1973) Principles of Environmental Physics. Edward Arnold London, UK.Google Scholar
  34. Monteith JL (1981) Evaporation and surface temperature. Quart J Roy Met Soc 107: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Munley WG, Hipps LE (1990) Estimation of regional evaporation for a tall grass prairie from measurements of properties of the atmospheric boundary layer. Water Resources Res 27: 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Noilhan J et al. (1992) (Private communication), CNRM, Toulouse, France.Google Scholar
  37. Noilhan J, Planton S (1989) A simple paramaterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon Wea Rev 117(3): 536–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pinty J-P, Mascart P, Richard E, Rosset R (1989) An investigation of mesoscale flows induced by vegetation inhomogeneities using an evaporation model calibrated against HAPEX-MOBILHY data. J Appl Met 28: 976–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Raudkivi A J (1971) Hydrology. Pergaman Press Oxford.Google Scholar
  40. Raupach MR (1979) Anomalies in flux-gradient relationships over forest. Bound Layer Met 16: 467–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raupach MR (1989) Stand overstorey processes. Phil Tran R Soc London, B324: 175–190.Google Scholar
  42. Rutter AJ, Kershaw KA, Robins PC, Morton AJ (1971) A predictive model of rainfall interception in forests. I: Derivation of the model from observations in a plantation of Corsican Pine. Agric Met 9: 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sato N, Sellers PJ, Randall DA, Schneider EK, Shukla J, Kinter III L, Hou Y-T, Al-bertazzi E (1989) Effects of implementing the Simple Biosphere Model in a General Circulation Model. J Atmos Sci 46(18): 2757–2782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shukla J, Mintz Y (1982) Influence of land-surface évapotranspiration on the earth’s climate. Science 215: 1498–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shuttleworth WJ (1975) The concept of intrinsic surface resistance: Energy budgets at a partially wet surface. Bound Layer Met 8: 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shuttleworth WJ (1988) Macrohydrology - the new challenge for process hydrology. J Hydr 100, 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shuttleworth WJ (1989) Micrometeorology of temperate and tropical forest. Phil Tran R Soc Lond B324: 299–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shuttleworth WJ (1991a) Insight from large-scale observational studies of land/atmosphere interactions. In: Land surface atmosphere interactions: parameterization and analysis for climate modelling (ed. EF Wood) 3–30, D Reidel New York.Google Scholar
  49. Shuttleworth WJ (1991b) The Modollion Concept. Reviews Geophys 29(4), 585–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shuttleworth WJ, Dickinson RE Comments on “Modelling tropical deforestation: a study of GCM land-surface paramaterizations”, RE Dickinson, A Henderson-Sellers. Quart J Roy Met Soc 115: 1177–1179.Google Scholar
  51. Shuttleworth WJ, Gash JHC, Lloyd CR, Moore CJ, Roberts JM, Marques A de O, Fisch G, Silva Filho V de P, Ribeiro MNG, Molion LC B, Nobre C, de Sa LDA, Cobral OMR, Patel SR, Mordas JC (1984) Observations of radiation exchange above and below Amazonian forest. Quart J Roy Met Soc 110: 1163–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shuttleworth WJ, Gurney RJ (1990) The theoretical relationship between foliage temperature and canopy resistance in sparse crops. Quart J Roy Met Soc 116: 497–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shuttleworth WJ, Gurney RJ, Hsu AY, Ormsby JP (1989) FIFE: the variation in energy partition at surface flux sites. IAHS Publ No. 186: 67–74.Google Scholar
  54. Shuttleworth WJ, Wallace JS (1984) Evaporation from sparse crops - an energy combination theory. Quart J Roy Met Soc 111: 839–855.Google Scholar
  55. Sinclair TR, Murphy CE, Knoerr KR (1976) Development and evaluation of simplified models simulating canopy photosynthesis and transpiration. J Appl Ecol 13: 813–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sellers PJ, Mintz Y, Sud YC, Dalcher A (1986) A Simple Biosphere (SiB) for use within General Circulation Models. J Atmos Sci 43: 505–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sellers PJ, Hall FG, Asrar G, Strebel DE, Murphy RE (1988a) The first ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Bull Amer Met Soc 69(1): 22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sellers PJ, Hall FG, Strebel DE, Kelly RD, Verma SB, Markham BL, Blad BL, Schimmel DS, Wang JR, Kanemasu ET (1988b) First ISLSCP Field Experiment, April 1988, Workshop Report Available from Code 623, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Md 20771, USA.Google Scholar
  59. Seilers PJ, Shuttleworth WJ, Dormán JL, Dalcher A, Roberts JM (1989) Calibrating the Simple Biosphere Model for Amazonian tropical forest using field and remote sensing data. Part I: Average calibration with field and remote sensing data. J Appl Met 28: 727–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shu Fen Sun (1982) Moisture and heat transport in a soil layer forced by atmospheric conditions. M S Thesis. Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Connecticut 72 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Smith EA, Hsu AY, Crosson WL, Field R, Fritschen LJ, Gurney RJ, Kanemasu ET, Kustas W, Nie D, Shuttleworth WJ, Stewart JB, Verma SB, Weaver H, Wesley M (1991) Area-average surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain. Submitted to J Geophys Res Google Scholar
  62. Stewart JB, Shuttleworth WJ, Blyth K, Lloyd CR (1989) FIFE: a comparison between aerodynamic surface temperature and radiometric surface temperature over sparse prairie grass. Proc 19th Agric For Meteorol and 9th Conf Biometeor Aerobiology, March 7–10 1989, Charleston, S. Caroline. Publ Amer Met Soc 144–146.Google Scholar
  63. Stewart JB, Thorn AS (1973) Energy budgets in pine forest. Quart J Roy Met Soc 99: 154–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Strieker H (1991) Observing and modelling the terrestrial hydrological cycle. In: Energy and Water Cycles in the Climate System (ed. Ehrhard Raschke),NATO ASI (this volume)Google Scholar
  65. Sud YC, Shukla J, Mintz Y (1985) Influence of land-surface roughness on atmospheric circulation and rainfall: A sensitivity experiment with GCM. NASA Tech Mem 86219, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Md. 20771, USA.Google Scholar
  66. Thorn AS (1972) Momentum, mass and heat exchange of vegetation. Quart J Roy Met Soc 103: 345–357.Google Scholar
  67. Thorn AS (1975) Momentum, mass and heat exchange of plant communities. Section 3 in Vegetation and the Atmosphere (ed. JL Monteith), Academic Press London: 57–109.Google Scholar
  68. Thorn AS, Oliver HR (1977) On Penman’s equation for estimating regional evaporation. Quart J Roy Met Soc 103: 345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Waggoner PE (1975) hongVegetation and the Atmosphere, Volume 1. (ed. JL Monteith). Academic Press London: 205–228.Google Scholar
  70. Waggoner PE, Reifsnyder RW (1968) Simulation of the temperature humidity and evaporation profiles in a leaf canopy. J Appl Met 7: 400–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Warrilow DA (1985) Indications of the sensitivity of European climate to land use variations using a one-dimensional model. Proc. ISLSCP Conference Rome, Italy, 2–6 December 1985. ESA SP-248 159–166 (May 1986)Google Scholar
  72. WMO/ICSU (1990a) Scientific plan for the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, WMO/TD No.376, WMO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  73. WMO/ICSU (1990b) Report on the first meeting of the WCRP-GEWEX/ IGBP-CP3 Joint Working Group on Land-Surface Experiments, WMO/TD No.370, WMO, Geneva.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. James Shuttleworth
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of HydrologyWallingford, OxfordshireUK

Personalised recommendations