Advertisement

Electrolyte Transport

  • G. P. Schielke
  • A. L. Betz
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 103)

Abstract

A precisely regulated extracellular ionic environment in the central nervous system is vital for normal neuronal function. Thus, the processes that stabilize the concentrations of the principal electrolytes (Na, K, and Cl) in brain are of considerable importance. K is the ion most thoroughly studied, both because of its importance for neuronal function and the availability of methods for determining its concentration in interstitial fluid (ISF) in vivo. The early studies of Bito (1969) indicated that the concentration of K in the cerebrospinal fluid ([K] csf ) is maintained slightly lower than its concentration in plasma (approximately 2.8 mM and 4.4mM, respectively). Similarly, the concentration of K in the interstitial fluid ([K] isf ) the cortical gray matter is maintained between 2.6 and 3.8mM, a level that is less than that of plasma water (Katzman 1976; Somjen 1979). Although one study has found regional variations in [K] isf from 3.35 mM in the cortex to 1.95 mM in the thalamus (Moghaddam and Adams 1987) and regional variations in [K] isf may also exist (Bito 1969), in general, the [K] in the brain’s extracellular fluid is lower than its concentration in plasma.

Keywords

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Choroid Plexus Cereb Blood Flow Brain Capillary Paracellular Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ANP

Atrial natriuretic pepticle

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ECF

Extracellular fluid

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

ISF

Interstitial fluid

[K] ISF

Concentration of potassium in the ISF

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott J, Davson H, Glen I, Grant N (1971) Chloride transport and potential across the blood-CSF barrier, Brain Res 29:185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott NJ, Butt AM, Wallis W (1986) The Na-K ATPase of the blood-brain barrier:a microelectrode study. Ann NY Acad Sci 481:390–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asano T, Shigeno T, Johshita H, Usui M, Hanamura T (1987) A novel concept on the pathogenetic mechanism underlying ischaemic brain oedema: relevance of free radicals and eicosanoids. Acta Neurochir 41:85–94Google Scholar
  4. Astrup J, Rehncrona S, Siesjo BK (1980) The increase in extracellular potassium concentration in ischemic brain in relation to the perischemic functional activity and cerebral metabolic rate. Brain Res 199:161–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahner U, Geiger H, Palkovits M, Ganten D, Michel J, Heidland A (1990) Atrial natriuretic peptides in brain nuclei of rats with inherited diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro rats). Neuroendocrinology 51:721–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benos DJ (1982) Amiloride: a molecular probe of sodium transport in tissues and cells. Am J Physiol 242:C131–C145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Betz AL (1983a) Sodium transport from blood to brain: inhibition by furosemide and amiloride. J Neurochem 41:1158–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Betz AL (1983b) Sodium transport in capillaries isolated from rat brain. J Neurochem 41:1150–1157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Betz AL (1985) Epithelial properties of brain capillary endothelium. Fed Proc 44:2614–2615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Betz AL (1991) An overview of the multiple functions of the blood-brain barrier. In: Brown RM, Frankenheim J (eds) NIDA technical review on drug bioavailability and the blood-brain barrier. US Government Printing Office Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Betz AL, Coester HC (1990) Effect of steroids on edema and sodium uptake of the brain during focal ischemia in rats. Stroke 21:1199–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Betz AL, Goldstein GW (1978) Polarity of the blood-brain barrier: neutral aminoacid transport into isolated brain capillaries. Science 202:225–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betz AL, Goldstein GW (1981) The basis for active transport at the blood-brain barrier. In: Eisenberg HM, Suddith RL (eds) Adances in experimental medicine and biology. Plenum, New York, p 5Google Scholar
  14. Betz AL, Firth JA, Goldstein GW (1980) Polarity of the blood-brain barrier: distribution of enzymes between the luminal and antiluminal membranes of brain capillary endothelial cells. Brain Res 192:17–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Betz AL, Ennis SR, Schielke GP (1989) Blood-brain barrier sodium transport limits development of brain edema during partial ischemia in gerbils. Stroke 20:1253–1259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Betz AL, Iannotti F, Hoff JT (1989) Brain edema: a classification based on blood-brain barrier integrity. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1:133–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bito LZ (1969) Blood-brain barrier: evidence for active cation transport between blood and the extracellular fluid of brain. Science 165:81–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradbury M (1979) The concept of a blood-brain barrier. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradbury MWB, Kleeman CR (1967) Stability of the potassium content of cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Am J Physiol 213:519–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradbury MWB, Stulcova B (1970) Efflux mechanism contributing to the stability of the potassium concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. J Physiol (Lond) 208:415–430Google Scholar
  21. Bradbury MWB, Segal MB, Wilson J (1972) Transport of potassium at the blood-brain barrier. J Physiol (Lond) 221:617–632Google Scholar
  22. Branston NM, Strong AJ, Symon L (1977) Extracellular potassium activity, evoked potential and tissue blood flow. J Neurol Sci 32:305–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brightman MW, Reese TS (1969) Junctions between intimately apposed cell membranes in the vertebrate brain. J Cell Biol 40:648–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brunner J, Graham DE, Hauser H, Semenza G (1980) Ion and sugar permeabilities of lecithin bilayers: comparison of curved and planar bilayers. J Membr Biol 57:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bundgaard M (1980) Transport pathways in capillaries-in search of pores. Ann Rev Physiol 42:325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Butt AM, Jones HC, Abbott NJ (1990) Electrical resistance across the blood-brain barrier in anaesthetized rats: a developmental study. J Physiol (Lond) 429:47–62Google Scholar
  27. Casley-Smith JR (1969) An electron microscopical demonstration of the permeability of cerebral and retinal capillaries to ions. Experientia 25/8:845–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaplin ER, Free RG, Goldstein GW (1981) Inhibition by steroids of the uptake of potassium by capillaries isolated from rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol 30:241–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crone C (1984) Lack of selectivity to small ions in paracellular pathways in cerebraland muscle capillaries of the frog. J Physiol (Lond) 353:317–337Google Scholar
  30. Crone C (1986) The blood-brain barrier as a tight epithelium: where is information lacking? Ann NY Acad Sci 481:174–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Crone C, Olesen SP (1982) Electrical resistance of brain microvascular endothelium. Brain Res 241:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cserr HF, Cooper DN, Suri PK, Patlak CS (1981) Efflux of radiolabeled polyethylene glycols and albumin from rat brain. Am J Physiol 240:F319–F328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cserr HF, Depasquale M, Patlak CS (1987a) Regulation of brain water and electrolytes during acute hyperosmolality in rats. Am J Physiol 253:F522–F529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cserr HF, Depasquale M, Patlak CS (1987b) Volume regulatory influx of electrolytes from plasma to brain during acute hyperosmolality. Am J Physiol 253:F530–F537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davson H (1955) A comparative study of the aqueous humour and cerebrospinal fluid in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 129:111–133Google Scholar
  36. Davson H, Segal MB (1970) The effects of some inhibitors and accelerators of sodium transport on the turnover of 22Na in the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain. J Physiol (Lond) 209:131–153Google Scholar
  37. Davson H, Welch K (1971) The permeation of several materials into the fluids of the rabbit’s brain. J Physiol (Lond) 218:337–351Google Scholar
  38. Dawson DC, Richards NW (1990) Basolateral K conductance: role in regulation of NaCl absorption and secretion. Am J Physiol 259:C181–C195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. DePasquale M, Patlak CS, Cserr HF (1989) Brain ion and volume regulation during acute hypernatremia in Brattleboro rats. Am J Physiol 256:F1059–F1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eisenberg HM, Suddith RL (1979) Cerebral vessels have the capacity to transport sodium and potassium. Science 206:1083–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ennis SR, Keep RF, Schielke GP, Betz AL (1990) Decrease in perfusion of cerebral capillaries during incomplete ischemia and reperfusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10:213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Faraci FM, Mayhan WG, Heistad DD (1990) Effect of vasopressin on production of cerebrospinal fluid: Possible role of vasopressin (Vl)-receptors. Am J Physiol 258:R94–R98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Firth J A (1976) Cytochemical localization of the K+ regulation interface between blood and brain. Experientia 33:1093–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fishman RA (1980) Cerebrospinal fluid in diseases of the nervous system. Saunders, Philadilphia London TorontoGoogle Scholar
  45. Fromter E, Diamond J (1972) Route of passive ion permeation in epithelia. Nature New Biol 235:9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Go KG, Pratt J J (1975) The dependence of the blood to brain passage of radioactive sodium on blood pressure and temperature. Brain Res 93:329–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Go KG, Koster-Otte L, Pratt JJ (1979) Brain sodium uptake after choroid plexectomy. Brain Res 170:325–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldstein GW (1979) Relation of potassium transport to oxidative metabolism in isolated brain capillaries. J Physiol (Lond) 286:185–195Google Scholar
  49. Greene DA, Lattimer SA, Sima AA (1987) Sorbitol, phosphoinositides, and sodium-potassium-ATPase in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. N Engl J Med 316:599–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hansen AJ (1984) Ion and membrane changes in the brain during anoxia. Behav Brain Res 14:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hansen AJ (1985) Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain. Physiol Rev 65:101–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hansen AJ, Zeuthen T (1981) Extracellular ion cencentrations during spreading depression and ischemia in the rat brain cortex. Acta Physiol Scand 113:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hansen AJ, Lund-Andersen H, Crone C (1977) K+-permeability of the blood-brain barrier, investigated by aid of a K+-sensitive microelectrode. Acta Physiol Scand 101:438–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harik SI (1986) Blood-brain barrier sodium/potassium pump: modulation by central noradrenergic innervation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4067–4070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris RJ, Symon L (1984) Extracellular pH, potassium, and calcium activity in progressive ischaemia of rat cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4:178–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harris RJ, Wieloch T, Symon L, Siesjo BK (1984) Cerebral extracellular calcium activity in severe hypoglycemia: relation to extracellular potassium and energy state. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 4:187–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Held D, Fend V, Pappenheimer JR (1964) Electrical potential of cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurophysiol 27:942–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hounsgaard J, Nicholson C (1983) Potassium accumulation around individual pur-kinje cells in cerebellar slices from the guinea-pig. J Physiol (Lond) 340:359–388Google Scholar
  59. Ibaragi M-A, Niwa M, Ozaki M (1989) Atrial natriuretic peptide modulates amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 53:1802–1806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones HC, Keep RC (1987) The control of potassium concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain interstitial fluid of developing rats. J Physiol (Lond) 383:441–453Google Scholar
  61. Katzman R (1976) Maintenance of a constant brain extracellular potassium. Fed Proc 35:1244–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Keep RF, Jones HC, Cawkwell RD (1987) Effect of chronic maternal hyperkalaemia on plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain interstitial fluid potassium in developing rats. J Dev Physiol 9:89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kimelberg HK, Norenberg MD (1989) Astrocytes. Sci Am 260:66–76Google Scholar
  64. Knudsen GM, Jakobsen J (1989) Blood-brain permeability to sodium. Modification by glucose of insulin? J Neurochem 52:174–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Knudsen GM, Jakobsen J, Barry DI, Compton AM, Tomlinson DR (1989) Myoinositol normalizes decreased sodium permeability of the blood-brain barrier in streptozotocin diabetes. Neuroscience 29:773–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koide T, Asano T, Matsushita H, Takakura K (1986) Enhancement of ATPase activity by a lipid peroxide of arachidonic acid in rat brain micro vessels. J Neurochem 46:235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lattimer SA, Sima AAF, Greene DA (1989) In vitro correction of impaired Na+-K+-ATPase in diabetic nerve by protein kinase C agonists. Am J Physiol 256:E264–E269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Light DB, Schwiebert EM, Karlson KH, Stanton BA (1989) Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits a cation channel in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. Science 243:383–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lin JD (1985) Potassium transport in isolated cerebral micro vessels from the rat. Jpn J Physiol 35:817–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lin JD (1988) Effect of osmolarity on potassium transport in isolated cerebral micro vessels. Life Sci 43:325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lo WD, Betz AL, Schielke GP, Hoff JT (1987) Transport of sodium from blood to brain in ischemic brain edema. Stroke 18:150–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Melton JE, Nattie EE (1983) Brain and CSF water and ions during dilutional and isosmotic hyponatremia in the rat. Am J Physiol 244:R724–R732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Milhorat TH, Hammock MK, Rail, DP, Levin VA (1971) Cerebrospinal fluid production by the choroid plexus and brain. Science 173:330–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moghaddam B, Adams RN (1987) Regional differences in resting extracellular potassium levels of rat brain. Brain Res 406:337–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Murphy VA, Johanson CE (1989) Acidosis, acetazolamide, and amiloride: effects on 22Na transfer across the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers. J Neurochem 52:1058–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mutsuga N, Schuette WH, Lewis DV (1976) The contribution of local blood flow to the rapid clearance of potassium from the cortical extracellular space. Brain Res 116:431–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nakao N, Itakura T, Hideyoshi Y, Nakai K, Komai N (1990) Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on ischemic brain edema: changes in brain water and electrolytes. Neurosurgery 27:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Newman EA (1986) High potassium conductance in astrocyte endfeet. Science 233:453–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ohno K, Pettigrew KD, Rapoport SI (1978) Lower limits of cerebrovasclar permeability to nonelectrolytes in the conscious rat. Am J Physiol 235:H299–H307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Oldendorf WH, Cornford ME, Brown WJ (1977) The large apparent work capacity of the blood-brain barrier: a study of the mitochondrial content of capillary endothelial cells in brain and other tissues of the rat. Ann Neurol 1:409–0417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Olesen S-P (1986) Rapid increase in blood-brain barrier permeability during severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition. Brain Res 368:24–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Olesen S-P (1987a) Free oxygen radicals decrease electrical resistance of microvascular endothelium in brain. Acta Physiol Scand 129:181–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Olesen S-P (1987b) Leakiness of rat brain microvessels to fluorescent probes following craniotomy. Acta Physiol Scand 130:63–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Olesen S-P, Crone C (1983) Electrical resistance of muscle capillary endothelium. Biophys J 42:31–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olesen S-P, Crone C (1986) Substances that rapidly augment ionic conductance of endothelium in cerebral venules. Acta Physiol Scand 127:233–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Orkand RK (1989) Role of glial cells in the control of the neuronal microenvironment. In: Battaini F, Govoni S, Magnoni MS, Trabucchi M (eds) Regulatory mechanisms of neuron to vessel communication in the brain. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 253Google Scholar
  87. Papahadjopoulos D (1971) Na+-K+ discrimination by “pure” phospholipid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 241:254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pearlmutter AF, Szkrybala M, Kim Y, Harik SI (1988) Arginine vasopressin receptors in pig cerebral microvessels, cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Neurosci Lett 87:121–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pollay M, Curl F (1967) Secretion of cerebrospinal fluid by the ventricular ependyma of the rabbit. Am J Physiol 213:1031–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Powell DW (1981) Barrier function of epithelia. Am J Physiol 241:G275–G288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Raichle ME, Grubb RL Jr (1978) Regulation of brain water permeability by centrally-released vasopressin. Brain Res 143:191–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Raichle ME, Hartman BK, Eichling JO, Sharpe LG (1975) Central noradrenergic regulation of cerebral blood flow and vascular permeability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3726–2730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Renkin EM (1978) Transport pathways through capillary endothelium. Micro vase Res 15:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenberg GA, Kyner WT, Estrada E (1980) Bulk flow of brain interstitial fluid under normal and hyperosmolar conditions. Am J Physiol 238:F42–F49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schielke GP, Moises HC, Betz AL (1990) Potassium activation of the Na,K-pump in isolated brain microvessels and synaptosomes. Brain Res 524:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schielke GP, Moises HC, Betz AL (1991) Blood to brain sodium transport and. interstitial fluid potassium concentration during focal ischemia in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 11:466–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shigeno T, Asano T, Mima T, Takakura K (1989) Effect of enhanced capillary activity on the blood-brain barrier during focal cerebral ischemia in cats. Stroke 20:1260–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith QR, Rapoport SI (1984) Carrier-mediated transport of chloride across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem 42:754–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Smith QR, Rapoport SI (1986) Cerebrovascular permeability coefficients to sodium, potassium, and chloride. J Neurochem 46:1732–1742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Somjen GG (1979) Extracellular potassium in the mammalian central nervous system. Ann Rev Physiol 41:159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Spector R, Johanson CE (1989) The mammalian choroid plexus. Sci Am Nov:68–74Google Scholar
  102. Steardo L, Nathanson JA (1987) Brain barrier tissues: end organs for atriopeptins. Science 235:470–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Strong AJ, Venables GS, Gibson G (1983) The cortical ischaemic penumbra associated with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the cat: 1. Topography of changes in blood flow, potassium ion activity, and EEG. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 3:86–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sykova E (1983) Extracellular K+ accumulation in the central nervous system. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 42:135–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Taylor AE, Granger DN (1983) Equivalent pore modeling: vesicles and channels. Fed Proc 42:2440–2445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vern BA, Schuette WH, Mutsuga N, Whitehouse WC (1979) Effects of ischemia on the removal of extracellular potassium in cat cortex during pentylenetetrazol seizures. Epilepsia 20:711–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vigne P, Champigny G, Marsault R, Barbry P, Frelin C, Lazdunski M (1989) A new type of amiloride-sensitive cationic channel in endothelial cells of brain micro vessels. J Biol Chem 264:7663–7668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Vorbrodt AW, Lossinsky AS, Wisniewski HM (1982) Cytochemical localization of ouabain-sensitive, K+-dependent P-nitro-phenylphosphatase (transport ATPase) in the mouse central and peripheral nervous systems. Brain Res 243:225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vyskocil F, Kriz N, Bures J (1972) Potassium-selective microelectrodes used for measuring the extracellular brain potassium during spreading depression and anoxic depolarization in rats. Brain Res 39:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wahl M, Unterberg A, Baethmann A, Schilling L (1988) Mediators of blood-brain barrier dysfunction and formation of vasogenic brain edema. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 8:621–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walz W, Hertz L (1983) Functional interactions between neurons and astrocytes. II.Potassium homeostasis at the cellular level. Prog Neurobiol 20:133–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Welch K, Sadler K (1966) Permeability of the choroid plexus of the rabbit to several solutes. Am J Physiol 210:652–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Welch K, Sadler K, Gold G (1966) Volume flow across choroidal ependyma of the rabbit. Am J Physiol 210:232–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wolff JR (1970) The astrocyte as link between capillary and nerve cell. Triangle 9:153–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Young W, Rappaport ZH, Chalif. DJ, Flamm ES (1987) Regional brain sodium, potassium, and water changes in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemia. Stroke 18:751–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zeuthen T, Wright EM (1981) Epithelial potassium transport: tracer and electrophysiological studies in choroid plexus. J Membr Biol 60:105–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Schielke
  • A. L. Betz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations