Advertisement

The Lower Proterozoic Hokkalampi Paleosol in North Karelia, Eastern Finland

  • Jukka S. Marmo

Abstract

An extensive Lower Proterozoic paleosol which has a minimum age of 2.2 Ga is reported from northern Karelia, eastern Finland. The paleosol suffered a greenschist facies regional metamorphism during the Svecofennian Orogeny 1.9 Ga ago. Interpretation of the Hokkalampi paleosol is based on variations in the chemical and mineral composition of its profiles and its association with overlying aluminous and quartz arenitic metasedimentary rocks. The paleosol consists of quartz-sericite schist with an increasing proportion of kyanite and andalusite toward the top. Paleosol thickness reaches 80 m but typically is much thinner. The original soil developed on both Archean granitoids and Lower Proterozoic glaciogenic rock.

The Hokkalampi paleosol clearly grades upward from its parent rocks through zones of increasing alteration. Relative to its parents, the paleosol is consistently depleted in ferrous iron, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. In the upper, most thoroughly weathered portions, ferric iron and potassium decrease, in some profiles considerably. Estimates of the extent of weathering (based on the ratio of alumina to more mobile components; the CIA index) are low near the bottom, moderate in the middle, and very high at the top. Silica and alumina constitute nearly all of the uppermost paleosol; alumina reaches 30%. The primary soil minerals probably were kaolinite and quartz.

The chemical maturity and great thickness of the paleosol and also associated metasediments are interpreted to record intense chemical weathering under a warm and humid climate, comparable to a modern tropical climate. Chemical reduction characterized the weathering until shortly before the soil became partially eroded and buried under clastic sediments. Soil erosion produced the overlying aluminous quartzite, conglomerate, and orthoquartzite.

The deep weathering which produced the Hokkalampi paleosol may have spanned an entire continent because other paleosols which are at least penecontemporaneous with the Hokkalampi are scattered across the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. Lower Proterozoic paleosols have been attributed to “tropical” weathering on several other Precambrian cratons. A similar association of Lower Proterozoic aluminous rocks overlying glaciogenic deposits has been reported from the Laurentian Shield of Canada. Unfortunately, scarce paleomagnetic data and poor dating presently impedes an evaluation of either contemporaneity of Lower Proterozoic paleosols or pa-leolatitudinal control on climate.

Keywords

Ferrous Iron Parent Rock Intermediate Zone Basal Zone Fennoscandian Shield 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Äikäs O, Sarikkola R (1987) Uranium in lower Proterozoic conglomerates of the Koli Area, eastern Finland. In: Uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates. Rep Work Group Uranium Geology, IAEA-TECDOC, pp 189–234Google Scholar
  2. Aurola E (1959) Kyaniitti-ja pyrofylliittiesiintymät Pohjois-Karjalassa. Summary: The kyanite and pyrophyllite occurrences in North Karelia. Geol Tutkimusl Geoteknol Julk 63:36ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Birkeland PV (1974) Pedology, weathering, and geomorphologic research. Univ Press, Oxford, 285 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Button A, Tyler N (1981) The character and economic significance of Precambrian paleoweathering and erosion surfaces in southern Africa. Econ Geol 75: 686–709Google Scholar
  5. Coultas CL (1980) Soils of marshes in the Appalachicola, Florida, Estuary. Proc Soil Sci Soc Am 44:348–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cox DB (1967) Regional environment of the Jacobina auriferous conglomerate, Brazil. Econ Geol 62: 773–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gay AL, GrandstaffDE (1979) Chemistry and mineralogy of Precambrian paleosols at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Precambrian Res 12:349–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holland HD (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans. Univ Press, Princeton, 582 ppGoogle Scholar
  9. HuhmaH (1986) Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic evidence for the origin of the Early Proterozoic Svekokarelian crust in Finland. Geol Surv Finland Bull 337: 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Idman H, Eilu P (1988) The alteration of granitoids in the western part of an Early Proterozoic greenstone belt -an example of a chemical weathering (translated from Finnish). In: Lappalainen V, Papunen H (eds) Studies in the field of geology. Ann Univ Turkuensis Ser C Tom 68:39–52Google Scholar
  11. Karhu J, Epstein S (1986) The implication of the oxygen isotope records in coexisting cherts and phosphates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50: 1745–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kimberley MM, Grandstaff DE (1986) Profiles of elemental concentrations in Precambrian paleosols on basaltic and granitic parent materials. In: Retallack GJ (ed) Precambrian paleopedology. Precambrian Res 32:133–154Google Scholar
  13. Koryakin AS (1971) Results of a study of Proterozoic weathering crusts in Karelia. Int Geol Rev 13: 973–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuzwart M (1969) Kaolin deposits of Czechoslovakia. In: 23rd Int Geol Congr Prague, vol 15, pp 47–73Google Scholar
  15. Kuzwart M (1980) IGCP Project Genesis of kaolins, results 1971–1979. Vetnik Ustredniho Ust Geol 55(3): 174–180Google Scholar
  16. Laajoki K (1986) The Precambrian supracrustal rocks of Finland and their tectono-exogenic evolution. Precambrian Res 33:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Laajoki K, Strand K, Härmä P (1989) Lithostratigraphy of the Early Proterozoic Kainuu Schist Belt in the Kurki-kylä-Siikavaara area, northern Finland, with emphasis on the genetic approach. Bull Geol Soc Finland 61: 65–93Google Scholar
  18. Lasch G (1978) Zu einigen Aspekten der Genese der Lausitzer Kaoline. Schriftenr Geol Wiss Berlin 11:165–178Google Scholar
  19. Loughnan FC (1969) Chemical weathering of the silicate minerals. Elsevier, New York, 154ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Luukkonen E, Lukkarinen H (1986) Explanation to the stratigraphic map of Middle Finland. Geol Surv Finland Rep Inv 74:47 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Maksimovic Z, Nikolic D (1978) The primary kaolin deposits of Yugoslavia. Schriftenr Geol Wiss Berlin 11: 179–197Google Scholar
  22. Marmo JS (1981) The Hokkalampi kyanite deposit at Kontiolahti. The geology of the environment and the origin of aluminium (translated from Finnish). Masters Thesis, Univ Helsinki, 81 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Marmo JS (1986) Sariolan stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Koli-Kaltimo Area, North Karelia, eastern Finland. In: Shokolov V (ed) Proc Symp Lower Protero-zoic formations on the eastern part of the Baltic Shield, Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp 149–190Google Scholar
  24. Marmo JS, Ojakangas RW (1984) Lower Proterozoic glaciogenic deposits, eastern Finland. Geol Soc Am Bull 95:1055–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marmo JS, Kohonen JJ, Sarapää O, Äikäs O (1988) Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the lower Proterozoic Sariola and Jatuli Groups in the Koli-Kaltimo Area, eastern Finland. GSF Spec Pap 5: 11–28Google Scholar
  26. Mason B, Moore CB (1982) Principles of geochemistry, 4th edn. John Wiley &Sons, New York, 344 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Meriläinen K (1980) On the stratigraphy of the Karelian formations. In: Silvennoinen A (ed) Jatulian geology in the eastern part of the Baltic Shield. Proc Finn Sov Symp, Finland 1979, pp 97–112Google Scholar
  28. Mertanen S, Pesonen LJ, Huhma H, Leino MAH (1989) Paleomagnetism of the Early Proterozoic layered intrusions, northern Finalnd. Geol Surv Finland Bull 347:40 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Millot G (1970) Geology of clays. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 429 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Murray HH (1978) Alteration of a granite to kaolin mineralogy and geochemistry. Schriftenr Geol Wiss Berlin 11:197–208Google Scholar
  31. Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1982) Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature (London) 299:715–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pekkarinen LJ (1979) The Karelian formations and their depositional basement in the Kiihtelysvaara-Värtsilä Area, East Finland. Geol Surv Finland Bull 301:141 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Perel’man AI (1977) Geochemistry of elements in the supergene zone. Keter, Jarusalem, 266 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Pesonen LJ, Neuvonen KJ (1981) Paleomagnetism of the Baltic Shield -implications for Precambrian tectonics. In: Kröner A (ed) Precambrian plate tectonics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 623–648Google Scholar
  35. Pettijohn FJ (1975) Sedimentary rocks. Harper &Row, Singapore, 628 ppGoogle Scholar
  36. Piirainen TA (1968) Die Petrologie und die Uranlagerstätten des Koli-Kaltimo-Gebiets im finnischen Nordkare-lien. Bull Comm Geol Finlande 237:99 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. Pinto JP, Holland HD (1988) Paleosols and the evolution of the atmosphere, pt 2. In: ReinhardtJ, Sigleo WR (eds) Paleosols and weathering through geologic time. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap, pp 21–34Google Scholar
  38. Reimer TO (1987) Weathering as a source of iron in iron formations: the significance of alumina-enriched paleosols from the Proterozoic of southern Africa. In: Appel P, LaBerge G (eds) Precambrian iron formations. Theophrastus, Athens, pp 601–619Google Scholar
  39. Retallack GJ (1986a) The fossil record of soils. In: Wright VP (ed) Paleosols, their recognition and interpretation. Blackwells, London, ppl-57Google Scholar
  40. Retallack GJ (1986b) Reappraisal of 2200 Ma-old paleosol near Waterval, South Africa. In: Retallack GJ (ed) Precambrian paleopedology. Precambrian Res 32: 195–232Google Scholar
  41. Senior BR, Mabbuth JA (1979) A proposed method of defining deeply weathered rock units based on regional mapping in southwest Queensland. J Geol Soc Aust 26:237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Simonen A (1980) The Precambrian of Finland. Geol Surv Finland Bull 304:58 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Shokolov VA, Heiskanen KI (1984) Developmental stages of Precambrian crusts of weathering. In: Proc 27th Int Geol Congr, vol 5. VNU Science Press, Utrecht, pp 73–94Google Scholar
  44. Szplila K (1978) Kaolinisierungsprozesse des kristallinen Untergrundes des Zittauer Beckens. Schriftenr Geol Wiss Berlin 11:293–304Google Scholar
  45. Stephens CG (1971) Laterite and silcrete in Australia: A study of the genetic relationship of laterite and silcrete and their companion materials, and their collective significance in the formation of weathered mantle soils, relief and drainage of the Australian continent. Geoderma 5: 5–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Störr M, Kuzwart M, Neuzil J (1978) Age and genesis of weathering crusts of the Bohemian Massif. Schriftenr Geol Wiss Berlin 11:265–282Google Scholar
  47. Strakhov NM (1967) Principles of lithogenesis, voll. Olivier &Boyd, Edinburg, 245 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Strand K (1988) Alluvial sedimentation and tectonic setting of the early Proterozoic Kurkikylä and Kainuu Groups in northern Finland. In: Laajoki K, Paakkola J (eds) Sedimentology of the Precambrian formations in eastern and northern Finland. Geol Surv Finland Spec Pap 5:75–90Google Scholar
  49. Summerfield MA (1983) Geochemistry of weathering profile silcretes, southern Cape Province, South Africa. In: Wilson RCL (ed) Residual deposits. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 11:167–178Google Scholar
  50. Valeton I (1983) Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation. In: Wilson RCL (ed) Residual deposits. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 11:77–90Google Scholar
  51. Vuollo J (1991) Proterozoic mafic rock associations in North Karelia. In: Piirainen T (ed) Archean and Proterozoic geologic evolution and related ore-forming processes in North Karelia. North Karelia Ore Project, University of Oulu. Report of investigation 31Google Scholar
  52. Walker JCG, Klein C, Schidlowski M, SchopfJW, Stevenson DJ, Walter MR (1983) Environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic Earth. In: SchopfJW (ed) Earth’s earliest biosphere; its origin and evolution. Univ Press, Princeton, pp 260–289Google Scholar
  53. Winkler H (1979) Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 301 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Wopfner H (1983) Environment of silcrete formation. In: Wilson RCL (ed) Residual deposits. Geol Soc London SpecPubl 11:151–158Google Scholar
  55. Young GM (1973) Tillites and aluminous quartzites as possible time markers for middle Precambrian (Abhebian) rocks of North America. In: Young GM (ed) Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation. Geol Assoc Can Spec Pap 12:97–128Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jukka S. Marmo
    • 1
  1. 1.Geological Survey of FinlandEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations