Interactions Between Human Circadian and (About 90 min) Sleep Rhythms: Problems in the Simulation and the Analysis

  • R. A. Wever
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 55)


Biological rhythms which are manifested in a vide range of frequencies, are generated endogenously but commonly modified exogenously. In most rhythms this means that all parameters of the autonomous rhythms depend on the internal and external conditions constituting the relevant environment of the rhythmic system under consideration. It is obvious that this environment fluctuates regularly (possibly due to superimposed rhythms of lower frequencies) and irregularly (randomly). In that rhythmic system the properties of which are best known, i.e., in the circadian rhythmicity, moreover, an external modification is expressed in a synchronization of the endogenously generated rhythms by periodicities in the external conditions (i.e., by “zeitgebers”), at least within limited “ranges of entrainment” [1]. In most mammals including humans, apart from circadian rhythms only seasonal (yearly) rhythms correspond to external periodicities; in other organisms, external tidal and lunar rhythms can be relevant.


Circadian Rhythm Sleep Episode Ultradian Rhythm Sleep Rhythm Oscillatory Range 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Wever
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für PsychiatrieAndechsGermany

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