Advertisement

Interactions Between Human Circadian and (About 90 min) Sleep Rhythms: Problems in the Simulation and the Analysis

  • R. A. Wever
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 55)

Abstract

Biological rhythms which are manifested in a vide range of frequencies, are generated endogenously but commonly modified exogenously. In most rhythms this means that all parameters of the autonomous rhythms depend on the internal and external conditions constituting the relevant environment of the rhythmic system under consideration. It is obvious that this environment fluctuates regularly (possibly due to superimposed rhythms of lower frequencies) and irregularly (randomly). In that rhythmic system the properties of which are best known, i.e., in the circadian rhythmicity, moreover, an external modification is expressed in a synchronization of the endogenously generated rhythms by periodicities in the external conditions (i.e., by “zeitgebers”), at least within limited “ranges of entrainment” [1]. In most mammals including humans, apart from circadian rhythms only seasonal (yearly) rhythms correspond to external periodicities; in other organisms, external tidal and lunar rhythms can be relevant.

Keywords

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Episode Ultradian Rhythm Sleep Rhythm Oscillatory Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wever, R.A.: The Circadian System of Man (XI and 276 p). (Springer-Verlag, New York — Heidelberg — Berlin, 1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wever, R.: Zum Mechanismus der biologischen 24-Stunden-Periodik. III. Mitteilung: Anwendung der Modell-Gleichung. Kybernetik 2: 127–144 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wever, R.A.: Toward a mathematical model of circadian rhythmicity. In: Mathematical models of the circadian sleep-wake cycles (eds.: M.C. Moore-Ide and C.A. Czeisler), pp.17–79 (Raven Press, New York 1984).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wever, R.A.: Mathematical models of circadian one- and multi-oscillator systems. In: Some Mathematical Questions in Biology: Circadian Rhythms (ed.: G.A. Carpenter), pp. 205–265 (The Amer. Math. Soc., Providence RI 1987).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wever, R.: Ein mathematisches Modell für biologische Schwingungen. Z. Tierpsychol. 21: 359–372 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wever, R.A.: Modes of interaction between ultradian and circadian rhythms: toward a mathematical model of sleep. Exper. Brain Res., Suppl. 12: 309–317 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wever, R.: Zum Mechanismus der biologischen 24-Stunden-Periodik. II. Mitteilung. Der Einfluß des Gleichwertes auf die Eigenschaften selbsterregter Schwingungen. Kybernetik 1: 213–231 (1963).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wever, R.A.: Circadian rhythms of finches under steadily changing light intensity: are self-sustaining circadian rhythms self-excitatory? J. Comp. Physiol. A 140: 113–119 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wever, R.A.: Properties of human sleep-wake cycles: parameters of internally synchronized freerunning rhythms. Sleep 7: 27–51 (1984).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wever, R.A.: Characteristics of circadian rhythms in human functions. J. Neural Transm., Suppl. 21: 323–373 (1986).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wever, R.A.: Geschlechtsunterschiede von Schlaf Parametern. In: Biologische Psychiatrie (ed.: B. Saletu), pp. 375–379 (Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart 1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wever, R.A.: Order and disorder in human circadian rhythmicity: possible relations to mental disorders. In: Biological Rhythms and Mental Disorders (eds.: D.J. Kupfer, T.H. Monk and J.D. Barchas), pp. 253–346 (The Guilford Press, New York 1988).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wever, R.A.: Internal interactions within the human circadian system: the masking effect. Experientia 41: 332–342 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wever, R.A.: Behavioral aspects of circadian rhythmicity. In: Rhythmic Aspects of Behavior (eds.: F.M. Brown and R.C. Graeber), pp. 105–171 (L. Erlbaum Ass. Inc., Hillsdale NJ 1982).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wever, R.A.: Light effects on human circadian rhythms: a review of recent Andechs experiments. J. Biol. Rhythms 4: 161–185 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wever, R.A.: Use of light to treat jet-lag: differential effects of normal and bright artificial light on human circadian rhythms. In: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 453: 282–304 (1985).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wever, R.A.: Possible relations between disorders in circadian rhythmicity and mental disorders. In: Integrative Biologic Psychiatry (eds.: H.M. Emrich and M. Wiegand), in press (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 1991).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wever, R.A.: The electromagnetic environment and the circadian rhythms of human subjects. In: Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Static and ELF Electric Fields (eds.: M. Grandolfo, S.M. Michaelson and A. Rindi), pp. 477–523 (Plenum Press, New York 1985).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wever, R.A.: Fractional desynchronization of human circadian rhythms: a method for evaluating entrainment limits and functional interdependences. Pflügers Arch. 396: 128–137 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wever, R.A.: Schlaf und Melatonin. In: Biologische Psychiatrie (ed.: B. Saletu), pp.397–401 (Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart 1989).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wever, R.A.: Circadian aspects of sleep. In: Methods of Sleep Research (eds.: S. Kubicki and W.M. Herrmann), pp. 119–151 (Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Wever
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für PsychiatrieAndechsGermany

Personalised recommendations