The Pathology of Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Devices

  • C. H. Buckley
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 86)


The composition and structure of intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) has changed over the years and thus data relating to women in the 1970s or early 1980s is almost certainly inapplicable to current users. Further, large-scale population studies of users, which are assumed to be objective, may be affected by bias because not all women are viewed as being equally suitable candidates for the device. Thus a degree of preselection has occurred even before we begin to examine the consequences, to the individual, of wearing an IUCD.


Obstet Gynecol Ectopic Pregnancy Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Intrauterine Device Cervical Smear 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramovici H, Faktor JH, Bornstein J, Sorokin Y (1987) The “forgotten” intrauterine device. Fertil Steril 47: 519–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adachi A, Kleiner GJ, Bezahler GH, Greston WM, Friedland GH (1985) Abdominal wall actinomycosis with an IUD. A case report. J Reprod Med 30: 145–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adoni A, Ben Chetrit A (1991) The management of intrauterine devices following uterine perforation. Contraception 43: 77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvarez F, Brache V, Fernandez E et al. (1988) New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women. Fertil Steril 49: 768–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvior GT Jr (1973) Pregnancy outcome with removal of intrauterine device. Obstet Gynecol 41: 894–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrade AT, Pizarro-Orchard E (1987) Quantitative studies on menstrual blood loss in IUD users. Contraception 36: 129–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arowojolu AO, Otolorin EO, Ladipo OA (1989) Serum copper levels in users ofmultiload intra-uterine contraceptive devices. Afr J Med Sci 18: 295–299Google Scholar
  8. Arroyo G, Quinn JA Jr (1989) Association of amoebae and actinomyces in an intrauterine contraceptive device user. Acta Cytol 33: 298–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Badrawi HH, Van Os WA, Edelman DA, Rhemrev PE (1988) Effects of intrauterine devices on the surface ultrastructure of human endometrium before and after removal. Adv Contracept 4: 295–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbosa I, Bakos O, Olsson SE, Odlind V, Johansson ED (1990) Ovarian function during use of a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Contraception 42: 51–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaauwhof PC, Goldstuck ND (1988) Intrauterine breakage of a Multiload Cu250 intrauterine device: report of a case. Adv Contracept 4: 217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonney WA, Glasser SR, Clewe TH, Noyes RW, Cooper CL (1966) Endometrial response to the intrauterine device. Am J Obstet Gynecol 96: 101–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brinson RR, Kolts BE, Monif GR (1986) Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis associated with an intrauterine device. J Clin Gastroenterol 8: 82–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Browning JJ, Bigrigg MA (1988) Recovery of the intrauterine contraceptive device from the sigmoid colon. Three case reports. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95: 530–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchan H, Villard-Mackintosh L, Vessey M, Yeates D, McPherson K (1990) Epidemiology of pelvic inflammatory disease in parous women with special reference to intrauterine device use. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 97: 780–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buckley CH (1987) Pathology of contraception and hormonal therapy. In: Fox H (ed) Haines and Taylor: obstetrical and gynaecological pathology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 839–873Google Scholar
  17. Buckley CH, Fox H (1989) Biopsy pathology of the endometrium. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 72–79Google Scholar
  18. Burkman R (1981) Women’s Health Study: association between intrauterine contraceptive devices and pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 57: 269–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burkman RT (1990) Modern trends in contraception. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 17: 759–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chi IC, Wilkens L, Rogers S (1985) Expulsions in immediate postpartum insertions of Lippes loop D and Copper T IUDs and their counterpart Delta devices–an epidemiological analysis. Contracep-tion 32: 119–134Google Scholar
  21. Chi IC, Wilkens LR, Robinson N, Dominik R (1989) Cervical laceration at IUCD insertion -incidence and risk factors. Contraception 39: 507–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Christiaens GCML, Sixma JJ, Haspels AA (1981) Haemostasis in menstrual endometrium in the presence of an intrauterine device. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 88: 825–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clausen I, Borium KG, Frost L (1990) Heterotopic pregnancy. The first case with an IUD in situ. Zentralbl Gynakol 112: 45–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cleghorn AG, Wilkinson RG (1989) The IUCD-associated incidence of Actinomyces israelii in the female genital tract. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 29: 445–449Google Scholar
  25. Craig JM (1975) The pathology of birth control. Arch Pathol 99: 233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cramer DW, Schiff I, Schoenbaum SC, et al. (1985) Tubal infertility and the intrauterine contraceptive device. N Engl J Med 312: 941–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Custo G, Saitto C, Cerza S, Cosmi EV (1986) Intrauterine rupture of the intrauterine device “ML Cu 250”: an uncommon complication: presentation of a case. Fertil Steril 45: 130–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Daling JR, Weiss NS, Metch BJ, Chow WH, Soderstrom RM, Moore DE (1985) Primary tubal infertility in relation to the use of an intrauterine device. N Engl J Med 312: 937–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dallenbach-Hellweg G (1981) Histopathology of the endometrium, 3rd edn. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New York, pp 126–256Google Scholar
  30. Davis HJ (1972) Intrauterine contraceptive devices. Present status and future prospects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 134–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. de Castro A, Gonzalez-Gancedo P, Contreras F, Lapena G (1986) The effect of copper ions in vivo on specific hormonal endometrial receptors. Adv Contracept 2: 399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. de Clercq AG, Bogaerts J, Thiery M, Claeys G (1987) Ovarian actinomycosis during first trimester pregnancy. Adv Contracept 3: 167–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Domrnisse J (1977) Intra-uterine contraceptive devices. S Afr Med J 52: 495–496Google Scholar
  34. Edelman DA (1985) Selection of appropriate comparison groups to evaluate PID risk in IUD users. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 412–419Google Scholar
  35. Edelman DA, Porter CW (1986a) The intrauterine device and ectopic pregnancy. Adv Contracept 2: 55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Edelman DA, Porter CW Jr (1986b) Pelvic inflammatory disease and the IUD. Adv Contracept 2: 313–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Edelman DA, van Os WA (1990) Duration of use of copper releasing IUDs and the incidence of copper wire breakage. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 34: 267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fissa MK, Sparks RA, Newton JR (1985) Immunoglobulin levels in the serum and cervical mucus of tailed copper IUD users. Contraception 32: 87–95Google Scholar
  39. El-Mahgoub BS (1980) The Norgestrel-T IUD. Contraception 22: 271–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ermini M, Carpino F, Petrozza V, Benagiano G (1989) Distribution and effect on the endometrium of progesterone released from a Progestasert device. Hum Reprod 4: 221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fahmy K, Ismail H, Sammour M, el-Tawil A, Ibrahim M (1990) Cervical pathology with intrauterine contraceptive devices–a cyto-colpo-pathological study. Contraception 41: 317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Faundes A, Alvarez F, Brache V, Tejada AS (1988) The role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia during fertility regulation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 26: 429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fiore N (1986) Epidemiological data, cytology and colposcopy in IUD (intrauterine device), E-P (estroprogestogens) and diaphragm users. Study of cytological changes of endometrium IUD related. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 13: 34–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fisher MS (1980) “Miliary” actinomycosis. J Can Assoc Radiol 31: 149–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Flesh G, Weiner J, Corlett R, et al. (1979) The intrauterine contraceptive device and acute salpingitis: a multifactor analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 402–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fylling P (1987) Clinical performance of Copper T 200, Multiload 250 and Nova-T: a comparative multicentre study. Contraception 35: 439–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fylling P, Fagerhol M (1979) Experience with two different medicated intrauterine devices: a comparative study of the Progestasert and Nova T. Fertil Steril 31: 138–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ghosh K, Gupta I, Gupta SK (1989) Asymptomatic salpingitis in intrauterine contraceptive device users. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol 15: 37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Glew S, Singh A (1989) Uterine bleeding with an IUD requiring emergency hysterectomy. Adv Contracept 5: 51–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goldman GA, Dicker D, Ovadia J (1988) Primary abdominal pregnancy: can artificial abortion, endometriosis and IUD be etiological factors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 27: 139–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Goldman JA, Yeshaya A, Peleg D, Dekel A, Dicker D (1986) Severe pneumococcal peritonitis complicating IUD: case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol 41: 672–674Google Scholar
  52. Goldstuck ND (1987) Insertion forces with intrauterine devices: implications for uterine perforation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 25: 315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorsline JC, Osborne NG (1985) Management of the missing intrauterine contraceptive device: report of a case. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153: 228–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Grafenberg E (1929) cited by Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) ( 1985 ) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, p xviiGoogle Scholar
  55. Gupta BK, Gupta AN, Lyall S (1989) Return of fertility in various types of IUCD users. Int J Fertil 34: 123–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gupta PK, Burroughs F, Luff RD, Frost JK, Erozan YS (1978a) Epithelial atypias associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices ( IUD ). Acta Cytol 22: 286–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gupta PK, Erozan YS, Frost JK (1978b) Actinomycetes and the IUD: an update. Acta Cytol 22: 281–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hansen LK (1989) Bilateral female pelvic actinomycosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 68: 189–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Haukkamaa M, Allonen H, Heikkila, Luukkainen T, Lahteenmaki P, Nilsson CG, Toivonen J (1985) Long-term clinical experience with levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 232–237Google Scholar
  60. Haukkamaa M, Stranden P, Jousimies-Somer H, Siitonen A (1986) Bacterial flora of the cervix in women using different methods of contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154: 520–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hays D, Edelstein JA, Ahmad MM (1986) Perforation of the sigmoid colon by an intrauterine contraceptive device. Contraception 34: 413–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Heartwell SF, Schlesselman S (1983) Risk of uterine perforation among users of intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol 61: 31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hefnawi F, Hosni M, El-Shiekha Z, Serour GI, Hasseeb F (1975) Perforation of the uterine wall by Lippes loop in postpartum women. In: Hefnawi F, Segal SJ (eds) Analysis of intrauterine contraception. North-Holland, Amsterdam pp 469–476Google Scholar
  64. Herbertsson G, Magnusson SS, Benediktsdottir K (1987) Ovarian pregnancy and IUCD use in a defined complete population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66: 607–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hill JA, Talledo E, Steele J (1986) Quantitative transcervical uterine cultures in asymptomatic women using an intrauterine contraceptive device. Obstet Gynecol 68: 700–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Honoré LH (1985) The negative effect of the IUCD on the occurrence of heteroploidy-correlated abnormalities in spontaneous abortions: an update. Contraception 31: 253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Honoré LH (1986) The intrauterine contraceptive device and hydatidiform mole: a negative association. Contraception 34: 213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hsu CT, Hsu ML, Hsieh TM, Lin CT, Wang TT, Lin YN (1989) Uterine malignancy developing after long-term use of IUCD additional report. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol 15: 237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Huggins GR, Cullins VE (1990) Fertility after contraception or abortion. Fertil Steril 54: 559–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kajanoja P, Lang B, Wahlstrom T (1987) Intra-uterine contraceptive devices ( IUDs) in relation to uterine histology and microbiology. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66: 445–449Google Scholar
  71. Keith LG, Berger GS (1985) The pathogenic mechanisms of pelvic infection. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 232–237Google Scholar
  72. Kessel E (1989) Pelvic inflammatory disease with intrauterine device use: a reassessment. Fertil Steril 51: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Key TC, Kreutner AK (1980) Gastrointestinal complications of modern intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol 55: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Khan SR, Wilkinson EJ (1985) Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron micro-probe analysis of calcific deposits on intrauterine contraceptive devices. Hum Pathol 16: 732–738Google Scholar
  75. Khan SR, Wilkinson EJ (1990) Bladder stone in a human female: the case of an abnormally located intrauterine contraceptive device. Scanning Microsc 4: 395–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kiilholma P, Makinen J, Vuori J (1989) Bladder perforation: uncommon complication with a misplaced IUD. Adv Contracept 5: 47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kiilholma P, Makinen J, Maenpaa J (1990) Perforation of the uterus following IUD insertion in the puerperium. Adv Contracept 6: 57–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kim-Farley RJ, Cates W, Ory HW, Hatcher RA (1978) Febrile spontaneous abortion and the IUD. Contraception 18: 561–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kronmal RA, Whitney CW, Mumford SD (1991) The intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory disease: the Women’s Health Study reanalysed. J Clin Epidemiol 44: 109–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Landers DV, Sweet RL (1985) Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of tuboovarian abscess. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 1098–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Larsen S, Hansen MK, Jacobsen JC, Ladehoff P, Sorensen T, Westergaard JG (1981) Comparison between two IUDs: Progestasert and CuT 200. Contracept Deliv Syst 2: 281–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee NC, Rubin GL, Borucki R (1988) The intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory disease revisited: new results from the Women’s Health Study. Obstet Gynecol 72: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lovest T (1990) A comparative evaluation of the Multiload 250 and Multiload 375 intra-uterine contraceptive devices. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 69: 521–526Google Scholar
  84. Luukkainen T, Allonen H, Haukkamaa M, et al. (1987) Effective contraception with the levonorgestrelreleasing intrauterine device: 12-month report of a European multicenter study. Contraception 36: 169–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Maenpaa J, Taina E, Gronroos M, Soderstrom KO, Ristmaki T, Narhinen L (1988) Abdominopelvic actinomycosis associated with intrauterine devices. Two case reports. Arch Gynecol Obstet 243: 237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Makinen JI, Erkkola RU, Laippala PJ (1989) Causes of the increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. A study on 1017 patients from 1966 to 1985 in Turku, Finland. Am J Obstet Gynecol 160: 642–646Google Scholar
  87. Mali B, Joshi JV, Wagle U, et al. (1986) Actinomyces in cervical smears of women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Acta Cytol 30: 367–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Maroni ES, Genton CY (1986) IUD-associated ovarian actinomycosis causing bowel obstruction. Arch Gynecol 239: 59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Michaud P, Lemaire B, Tescher M (1989) Avortement spontane d’une grossesse sur DIU par chorioamniotite a Candida. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 84: 45–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mishell DR Jr, Moyer DL (1969) Association of pelvic inflammatory disease with the intrauterine device. Clin Obstet Gynecol 12: 179–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Mishell DR Jr, Roy S (1982) Copper intrauterine contraceptive device event rates following insertion 4 to 8 weeks post partum. Obstet Gynecol 143: 29–35Google Scholar
  92. Mishell DR Jr, Bell JH, Good RG, Moyer DL (1966) The intrauterine device: a bacteriological study of the endometrial cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 96: 119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Misra JS, Engineer AD, Tandon P (1977) Cytological studies in women using copper intrauterine devices. Acta Cytol 21: 514–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mittal S, Gupta I, Lata P, Mahajan U, Gupta AN (1986) Management oftranslocated and incarcerated intrauterine contraceptive devices. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 26: 232–234Google Scholar
  95. Moyer DL, Mishell DR Jr (1971) Reactions of human endometrium to the intrauterine foreign body. 2. Long-term effects on the endometrial histology and cytology. Am J Obstet Gynecol 111: 66–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Moyer DL, Mishell DR Jr, Bell J (1970) Reactions of the human endometrium to the intrauterine device. I. Correlation of the endometrial histology with the bacterial environment of the uterus following short-term insertion of the IUD. Am J Obstet Gynecol 106: 799–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Murray S, Hickey JB, Houang E (1987) Significant bacteremia associated with replacement of intrauterine contraceptive device. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 698–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Muzsnai D, Hughes T, Price M, Bruksch L (1980) Primary abdominal pregnancy with the IUD (2 case reports). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 10: 275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nayar M, Chandra M, Chitraratha K, Kumari-Das S, Rai-Chowdhary G (1985) Incidence of actinomycetes infection in women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Acta Cytol 29: 111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. O’Brien PK, Roth-Moyo LA, Davis BA (1981) Pseudo-sulfur granules associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Clin Pathol 75: 822–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. O’Brien PK, Lea PJ, Roth-Moyo LA (1985) Structure of a radiate pseudocolony associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. Hum Pathol 16: 1153–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Ohta T (1974) Record of Ohta ring. Ohta Ring Research Institute, 2–1, Kanda, Ogawa-machi, Chiyoda, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  103. Olson RO, Jones S (1967) The forgotten IUD as a cause of infertility. Review of the world literature and report of a case. Obstet Gynecol 29: 579–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Osborne JL, Bennett MJ (1978) Removal of intra-abdominal intrauterine contraceptive devices. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85: 868–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Otolorin EO, Ladipo OA (1985) Comparison of intramenstrual IUD insertion with insertion following menstrual regulation. Adv Contracept 1: 45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Paavonen J, Varjonen-Toivonen M, Komulainen M, Heinonen PK (1985) Diagnosis and management of tubal pregnancy: effect on fertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 23: 129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Parewijck W, Claeys G, Thiery M, van Kets H (1988) Candidiasis in women fitted with an intrauterine contraceptive device. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95: 408–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pike MC (1990) Reducing cancer risk in women through lifestyle-mediated changes in hormone levels. Cancer Detect Prey 14: 595–607Google Scholar
  109. Porges RF (1973) Complications associated with the unsuspected presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 116: 579–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pschera H, Larsson B, Lindhe BA, Kjaeldgaard A (1988) The influence of copper intrauterine device on fatty acid composition of cervical mucus lecithin. Contraception 38: 341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ragni N, Rugiati S, Rossato P, Venturini PL, Foglia G, Capitanio GL (1977) Histological and ultrastructural changes of the endometrium in women using inert and copper coiled IUDs. Acta Eur Fertil 18: 193–210Google Scholar
  112. Randic L, Vlasic S, Matrljan I, Waszak CS (1985) Return to fertility after IUCD removal for planned pregnancy. Contraception 32: 253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Randic L, Haller H, Susa M, Rukavina D (1990) Cells adherent to copper-bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices determined by monoclonal antibodies. Contraception 42: 35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Richter R (1909) cited by Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) ( 1985 ) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, p xviiGoogle Scholar
  115. Rienprayura D, Phaosavasdi S, Semboonsuk S (1973) Cervical perforation by the copper-T intrauterine device. Contraception 7: 515–521Google Scholar
  116. Rioux JE, Cloutier D, Dupont P, Lamonde D (1986) Pregnancy after IUD use. Adv Contracept 2: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rizk M, Shaban N, Medhat I, Moby el Dien Y, Ollo MA (1990) Electron microscopic and chemical study of the deposits formed on the copper and inert IUCDs. Contraception 42: 643–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sandvei R, Sandstad E, Steier JA, Ulstein M (1987) Ovarian pregnancy associated with the intra-uterine contraceptive device. A survey of two decades. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66: 137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Schmidt WA, Bedrossian CW, Ali V, Webb JA, Bastian FO (1980) Actinomycosis and intrauterine contraceptive devices — the clinicopathologic entity. Diagn Gynecol Obstet 2: 165–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Scholten PC, Christaens GC, Haspels AA (1987) Intrauterine steroid contraceptives. Wien Med Wochenschr 137: 479 –483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schwartzwald D, Moopan UM, Tancer ML, Gomez-Leon G, Kim H (1986) Vesicouterine fistula with menouria: a complication from an intrauterine contraceptive device. J Urol 136: 1066–1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Segal SJ, Alvarez-Sanchez F, Adejuwon CA, Brache-de-Mejia V, Leon P, Faundes A (1985) Absence of chorionic gonadotropin in sera of women who use intrauterine devices. Fertil Steril 44: 214–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Seif MW, Aplin JD, Awad H, Wells D (1989) The effect of the intrauterine contraceptive device on endometrial secretory function: a possible mode of action. Contraception 40: 81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sepulveda WH (1990) Perforation of the rectum by a Copper-T intra-uterine contraceptive device. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 35: 275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Serr DM, Shalev J (1985) Ultrasound guidance for IUD removal in pregnancy. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 194–197Google Scholar
  126. Shaw ST (1985) Endometrial histopathology and ultrastructural changes with IUD use. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 276–296Google Scholar
  127. Shaw ST Jr, Macaulay LK, Hohman WR (1979a) Vessel density in endometrium of women with and without intrauterine contraceptive devices: a morphometric evaluation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135: 202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Shaw ST Jr, Macaulay LK, Hohman WR (1979b) Morphologic studies on IUD-induced metrorrhagia. I. Endometrial changes and clinical correlations. Contraception 19: 47–61Google Scholar
  129. Shaw ST Jr, Macaulay LK, Aznar R, Gonzalez-Angulo A, Roy S (1981) Effects of a progesterone-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device on the endometrial blood vessels: a morphometric study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 141: 821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sheppard BL (1987) Endometrial morphological changes in IUD users: a review. Contraception 36: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sheppard BL, Bonnar J (1985) Endometrial morphology and IUD-induced bleeding. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 297–306Google Scholar
  132. Shurbaji MS, Gupta PK, Newman MM (1987) Hepatic actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. A case report. Acta Cytol 31: 751–755Google Scholar
  133. Silverberg SG, Haukkamaa M, Arko H, Nilsson CG, Luukkainen T (1986) Endometrial morphology during long-term use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5: 235–241Google Scholar
  134. Sivin I (1985a) Intrauterine contraception. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 70–78Google Scholar
  135. Sivin I (1985b) IUD-associated ectopic pregnancies, 1974 to 1984. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Phila-delphia, pp 340–353Google Scholar
  136. Sivin I (1989) IUDs are contraceptives, not abortifacients: a comment on research and belief. Stud Fam Plann 20: 355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sivin I (1991) Dose-and age-dependent ectopic pregnancy risks with intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol 78: 291–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Sivin I, Schmidt F (1987) Effectiveness of IUDs: a review. Contraception 36: 55–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sivin I, Stern J, Diaz MM, et al. (1987) Two years of intrauterine contraception with levonorgestrel and with copper: a randomized comparison of the TCu 380Ag and levonorgestrel 20 mcg/day devices. Contraception 35: 245–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sivin I, el Mahgoub S, McCarthy T, Mishell DR Jr, Shoupe D, Alvarez F (1990) Long-term contraception with the levonorgestrel 20mcg/day (LNg 20) and the copper T 380Ag intrauterine devices: a five-year randomized study. Contraception 42: 361–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Skjeldestad F, Bratt H (1988) Fertility after complicated and non-complicated use of IUDs: a controlled prospective study. Adv Contracept 4: 179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Skjeldestad FE, Hammervold R, Peterson DR (1988) Outcomes of pregnancy with an IUD in situ — a population based case-control study. Adv Contracept 4: 265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Smith CV, Horenstein J, Platt LD (1988) Intraamnoiotic infection with Candida albicans associated with a retained intrauterine contraceptive device: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol 159: 123–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Snowden R, Williams M, Hawkins D (1977) The IUD: a practical guide. Croom Helm, London, p 38 Snowman BA, Malviya VK, Brown W, Malone JM Jr, Deppe G (1989) Actinomycosis mimicking pelvic malignancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 30: 283–286Google Scholar
  145. Sparks RA, Purrier BGA, Watt PJ, Elstein M (1977) The bacteriology of the cervix and uterus. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 84: 701–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sparks RA, Purrier BGA, Watt PJ, Elstein M (1981) Bacteriological colonisation of the uterine cavity: role of tailed intrauterine contraceptive device. Br Med J 282: 1189–1191Google Scholar
  147. Spaun E, Klunder K (1986) Candida chorioamnionitis and intrauterine contraceptive device. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 65: 183–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Tadesse E, Wamsteker K (1985) Evaluation of 24 patients with IUD-related problems: hysteroscopic findings. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 19: 37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Tamada T, Okagaki T, Maruyama M, Matsumoto S (1967) Endometrial histology associated with an intrauterine contraceptive device. Am J Obstet Gynecol 98: 811–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Tatum HJ, Schmidt FH (1977) Contraceptive and sterilization practices and extrauterine pregnancy: a realistic perspective. Fertil Steril 28: 407–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Tews G, Arzi W, Stoger H (1988) 74 Schwangerschaften trotz liegendem IUD. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 48: 349–351Google Scholar
  152. Thiery M, Van Kets H, Van der Pass H (1985) Immediate post-placental IUD insertion: the expulsion problem. Contraception 31: 331–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Thomalla JV (1986) Perforation of urinary bladder by intrauterine device. Urology 27: 260–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Thorbum J, Friberg B, Schubert W, Wassen AC, Lindblom B (1987) Background factors and management of ectopic pregnancy in Sweden. Changes over a decade. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66: 597–602Google Scholar
  155. Timonen H, Kurppa K (1987) IUD perforation leading to obstructive nephropathy necessitating nephrectomy: a rare complication. Adv Contracept 3: 71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Toivonen J, Luukkainen T, Allonen H (1991) Protective effect of intrauterine release of levonorgestrel on pelvic infection: three years’ comparative experience of levonorgestrel-and copper-releasing intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol 77: 261–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Tsalikis T, Stamatopoulos P, Kalachanis J, Mantalenakis S (1986) Experience with the MLCu250 IUD. Adv Contracept 2: 393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Tuomivaara L, Kauppila A, Puolakka J (1986) Ectopic pregnancy — an analysis of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment in 552 cases. Arch Gynecol 237: 135–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ulstein M, Steier AJ, Hofstad T, Digranes A, Sandvei R (1987) Microflora of cervical and vaginal secretion in women using copper-and norgestrel-releasing IUCDs. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66: 321–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Valicenti JF, Pappas AA, Graber CD, Williamson HO, Willis NF (1982) Detection and prevalence of IUD-associated Actnnomyces colonization and related morbidity — a prospective study of 69 925 cervical smears. JAMA 247: 1149–1152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Vanlancker M, Dierick AM, Thiery M, Claeys G (1987) Histologic and microbiologic findings in the fallopian tubes of IUD users. Adv Contracept 3: 147–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. van Kets HE, Thiery M, van der Pas H, Dieben TO (1989) Long-term experience with Multiload intrauterine devices. Adv Contracept 5: 179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Van Os WA, Edelman DA (1989) Uterine perforation and use of the Multiload IUD. Adv Contracept 5: 121–126Google Scholar
  164. Vessey MP, Yeates D, Flavel R, McPherson K (1981) Pelvic inflammatory disease and the intrauterine device: findings in a large cohort study. Br Med J 282: 855–857Google Scholar
  165. Videla-Rivero L, Etchepareborda JJ, Kesseru E (1987) Early chorionic activity in women bearing inert IUD, copper IUD and levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Contraception 36: 217–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Armstrong EG, Canfield RE (1987) Urinary human chorionic gonadotropin among intrauterine device users: detection with a highly specific and sensitive assay. Fertil Steril 47: 265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Winkler B, Richart RM (1985) Cervical/uterine pathologic considerations in pelvic infection. In: Zatuchni GI, Goldsmith A, Sciarra JJ (eds) Intrauterine contraception. Advances and future prospects. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp 438–449Google Scholar
  168. Wolf AS, Kriegler D (1986) Bacterial colonization of intrauterine devices ( IUDs ). Arch Gynecol 239: 31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Wollen AL, Flood PR, Sanvei R (1990) Altered ciliary substructure in the endosalpinx in women using an IUCD. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 69: 307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Wolner-Hanssen P, Svensson L, Mardh PA, Westrom L (1985) Laparoscopie findings and contraceptive use in women with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute salpingitis. Obstet Gynecol 66: 233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. World Health Organization’s Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (1985) Task Force on Intrauterine Devices for Fertility Regulation. A multinational case-control study of ectopie pregnancy Clin Reprod Fertil 3: 131–143Google Scholar
  172. World Health Organization’s Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (1987) Task Force on Intrauterine Devices for Fertility Regulation. Microdose intrauterine levonorgestrel for contraception. Contraception 35: 363–379Google Scholar
  173. Wright EA, Aisien AO (1989) Pelvic inflammatory disease and the intrauterine contraceptive device. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 28: 133–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Yoonessi M, Crickard K, Cellino IS, Satchidanand SK, Fett W (1985) Association of actinomyces and intrauterine contraceptive devices. J Reprod Med 30: 48–52PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. H. Buckley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations