Positive and Negative Symptoms: Assessment and Validity

  • N. C. Andreasen
  • M. Flaum
  • S. Arndt
  • R. Alliger
  • V. W. Swayze

Abstract

During the past decade, the study of the assessment and validity of negative symptoms has been restored to its rightful place in the realm of psychopathology. During the 1970s and early 1980s, negative symptoms were scarcely allowed in live in the servant’s quarters. Instead, they were neglected and ignored, while positive symptoms were raised to a position of pride and popularity because of their presumed superior reliability. Positive symptoms were, therefore, made the foundation of the definition of schizophrenia in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (Spitzer et al. 1978) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III (American Psychiatric Association 1980) and DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association 1987), and they were also given great prominence in the Present State Examination (Wing et al. 1974) and CATEGO (Wing et al. 1974). This state of affairs was in direct contradiction to the work of the historic scholars of psychopathology, Kraepelin (1919) and Bleuler (1916), who both saw negative symptoms as the core feature of schizophrenia. During the past decade, however, clinicians and investigators have returned again to this earlier perspective. Many now agree that negative symptoms (either referred to by that name or by other terms such as the apathy syndrome, the defect state, or the residual state) are the most important and the most handicapping symptoms that patients suffering from schizophrenia experience.

Keywords

Depression Dementia Schizophrenia Neurol Posit 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. C. Andreasen
  • M. Flaum
  • S. Arndt
  • R. Alliger
  • V. W. Swayze
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryThe University of IowaIowa CityUSA

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