Negative Symptoms in the Long-Term Course of Childhood Schizophrenia: A Discussion Contribution

  • C. Eggers
Conference paper


This short report is based on the results of a re-investigation of the long-term course of 57 cases of schizophrenic psychosis first manifested before the age of 14 years (11 patients were 10 years old or less at first manifestation and 46 patients between 11 and 14 years old). All diagnoses were made during the years 1925–1960, in each case after the first or second in-patient treatment. All patients were re-examined in personal interviews with them and their relatives 6–40 (average 16) years after first hospitalisation. The original diagnoses have been reassessed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) criteria (ICD 295.0–295.4). The results of the follow-up investigation were published in 1973 and 1978 (Eggers 1973, 1978). I agree with Tsuang’s statement demanding caution in evaluating negative and positive symptoms retrospectively. I too am of the opinion that prospective studies are necessary. On the other hand, however, long-term follow-up studies of patients with schizophrenic psychoses at all ages are of inestimable value, and in these studies I am forced to evaluate psychopathological symptoms retrospectively.


Negative Symptom Positive Symptom Formal Thought Disorder Childhood Schizophrenia Productive Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andreasen NC, Olsen S (1982) Negative vs. positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biehl H, Maurer K, Schubart C et al. (1986) Prediction of outcome and utilization of medical services in a prospective study of first onset schizophrenics. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 236:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black DW, Boffeli TJ (1989) Simple schizophrenia: past, present, and future. Am J Psychiatry 146:1267–1273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Buchanan RW, Kirkpatrick B, Heinrichs DW, Carpenter WT (1990) Clinical correlates of the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 147:290–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpenter WT, Heinrichs DW, Wagmann AMI (1988) Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. Am J Psychiatry 145:578–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Eggers C (1973) Verlaufsweisen kindlicher und präpuberaler Schizophrenien. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Psychiatrie)Google Scholar
  7. Eggers C (1978) Course and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia. J Autism Child Schizophr 9:21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnstone EC (1989) The assessment of negative and positive features in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 155:41–44Google Scholar
  9. Johnstone EC, Frith CD, Gold A et al. (1979) The outcome of severe acute schizophrenic illnesses after one year. Br J Psychiatry 134:28–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kay SR, Opler LA, Fiszbein A (1986) Significance of positive and negative syndromes in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 149:439–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 13:261–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kulhara P, Avasthi A, Chadda R, Chandiramani K, Mattoo SK, Kota SK, Joseph S (1989) Negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 154: 207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewine RRJ, Fogg L, Meitzer HY (1983) Assessment of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 9:368–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pfohl B, Winokur G (1982) Evolution of symptoms in institutionalised hebephrenic/catatonic schizophrenics. Br J Psychiatry 141:567–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pogue-Geile MF (1989) The prognostic significance of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 155:123–127Google Scholar
  16. Pogue-Geile MF, Harrow M (1984) Negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia and depression: a follow-up. Schizophr Bull 10:371–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT Jr (1981) Schizophrenia. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Eggers
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik für Kinder- und JugenpsychiatrieUniversitätsklinikumEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations