Viral Hepatitis B and D

  • S. Gupta
  • D. A. Shafritz


Although mankind has suffered the ravages of hepatitis from biblical times, it is only in the past three decades that we have begun to understand the nature of the viruses which infect the liver. We can now confidently talk of at least five viruses designated as hepatitis viruses (А, B, С or post-transfusion non-A non-B, D or delta, and E or water-borne epidemic non-A non-B). All cause acute hepatitis. Clinical manifestations alone are insufficient to allow distinction of one virus from another. However, an understanding of the biology and epidemiology of hepatitis viruses has greatly facilitated diagnosis. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is unique because it is defective and requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to survive. Both HBV and HDV (as well as HCV) can persist long-term and cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and/or death. Therefore, recognition of the onset and resolution of HBV or HDV infection are equally important. Moreover, highly effective vaccines against HBV have been developed and means are at hand to prevent HBV altogether and consequently, HDV.


Corticosteroid Pancreatitis Disulfide Neutropenia Meningitis 


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Suggested Reading

  1. Ganem D, Varmus HE (1987) The molecular biology of the hepatitis B viruses. Annu Rev Biochem 56:651–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Robinson WS (1990) Biology of human hepatitis viruses. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD (eds) Hepatology. A textbook of liver disease. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 890–945Google Scholar
  3. Seeff LB (1990) Diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of viral hepatitis. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD (eds) Hepatology. A textbook of liver disease. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 958–1025Google Scholar
  4. Tiollais P, Purcell C, Dejean A. (1985) The hepatitis B virus. Nature 317:489–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gupta
  • D. A. Shafritz

There are no affiliations available

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