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Psychologische Vorbereitung von Kindern auf medizinische Maßnahmen

  • H. Saile
  • L. R. Schmidt
Chapter
Part of the Jahrbuch der medizinischen Psychologie book series (MEDPSYCHOL, volume 7)

Zusammenfassung

Psychologische Vorbereitung von Kindern auf Krankenhausaufenthalte und medizinische Maßnahmen wird zunächst in bezug auf die Ziele, Methoden und Techniken sowie deren Indikation beleuchtet. Anschließend wird auf die Ergebnisse einer Metaanalyse bisher angewandter und systematisch evaluierter psychologischer Vorbereitungsmaßnahmen eingegangen. Deren Grundlage sind 75 bis zum Juni 1986 publizierte kontrollierte Interventionsstudien, in denen die Effekte der Vorbereitung von Kindern unter 13 Jahren quantitativ erfaßt wurden. Die ermittelten Effekte werden aufgeschlüsselt nach Vorbereitungsmethoden, medizinischen Maßnahmen und verwendeten Meßmethoden. Eine différentielle Betrachtung zeigt, daß sich die Ergebnisse überwiegend auf ältere Kinder mit einfacheren medizinischen Maßnahmen und kürzeren Krankenhausaufenthalten beziehen. Deshalb werden ausgewählte Beispiele von Untersuchungen zur psychologischen Vorbereitung bei schwerwiegenden Eingriffen nach Verbrennungen, bei Herzkatheterisierung sowie Knochenmarkpunktion und -transplantation besprochen. Die abschließende Diskussion geht auf einige Aspekte zukünftiger Forschungs- und Praxisstrategien ein.

Summary

Several aspects of psychological preparation for children facing medical procedures are discussed. These include the aims of the intervention, the methods and techniques used, and their proposed indication. The results of a meta-analysis of systematically evaluated studies on preparing children with psychological procedures are reported. This meta-analysis is based on 75 studies published up to June 1986 which assess the effects of psychological preparation of children younger than 13 years. The effects are presented with regard to preparation methods, medical procedures, and assessment methods used. A differentiated analysis reveals that the results mainly refer to older children undergoing minor procedures with short-term hospitalizations. Thus, we present some results of studies on burn injuries, cardiac catheterization, and bone marrow aspiration and transplantation as examples of psychological preparation for major medical procedures. Finally, some aspects of future strategies in research and practice are discussed.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

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  • H. Saile
  • L. R. Schmidt

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