Ischemia can be characterized by its extent and its duration (Fig. 1). From the point of view of the end result it can be useful to consider intestinal ischemia as either partial or total. Partial ischemia in turn can be divided into moderate (blood flow reduction less than 50% of the resting control level) or severe ischemia. Total ischemia, on the other hand, can be subdivided into warm and cold total ischemia. Both partial and total intestinal ischemia may occur with or without concomitant venous congestion. This chapter will discuss the hypoxic intestinal damage from this viewpoint.


Mucosal Injury Intestinal Ischemia Intestinal Blood Flow Sympathetic Nerve Stimulation Multiple System Organ Failure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Haglund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity HospitalUppsalaSweden

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