Incorporating Externalities in Least-cost Planning: The Use of Control Costs, Standards, and Multi-Attribute Approaches

  • Uwe Fritsche


More and more, environmental aspects gain importance in sectors which are significant contributors to ecological damage. Due to the close relation of environmental impacts and energy systems, special emphasize for environmental issues is given in energy policy and planning. The complexity of the energy/environmental problem is shown in Figure 1.


Electricity System Control Cost Environmental Cost External Cost Damage Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uwe Fritsche
    • 1
  1. 1.Öko-InstitutDarmstadtGermany

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