Water and Life pp 261-281 | Cite as

Ice Nucleating Agents in Cold-Hardy Insects

  • K. E. Zachariassen


Water is the solvent of all biological systems. Whenever insects and other poikilothermic animals are exposed to subfreezing temperatures, there is a possibility that their body water will freeze. Organismal freezing is usually fatal. The problems of survival at subzero temperatures are thus to a great extent the problems of how to deal with the body water at subzero temperatures.


Subzero Temperature Fluid Fraction Nucleate Activity Melting Point Depression Stag Beetle 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. E. Zachariassen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Trondheim, AVHDragvollNorway

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