Indications for Implanting Rate-Adaptive Cardiac Pacemakers

  • E. Alt
  • M. Matula
  • M. Heinz


Pacemaker therapy has developed into one of the most successful treatment methods in the field of cardiology. Initially implanted mainly to prevent Adams-Stokes attacks and to decrease the mortality of life-threatening bradycardias, pacemakers are increasingly implanted today for hemodynamic reasons, i.e. to improve the quality of life. The purpose is often not only to alleviate congestive heart failure at rest but alsoto enhance physical performance by improving cardiac output on exertion [1]. Other aims of rate-adaptive pacing are to provide an adequate rate response for different forms and levels of exercise, a rate adaptation under changing metabolic or circulatory conditions not due to exercise, a rate adaptation in terms of biorhythmics, a rate reaction in the case of emotional responses and to prevent the occurrence of especially atrial rhythm disorders.


Atrial Fibrillation Maximum Heart Rate Sick Sinus Syndrome Versus Block Chronotropic Incompetence 
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Copyright information

© Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Alt
  • M. Matula
  • M. Heinz
    • 1
  1. 1.First Medical ClinicTechnical University of MunichMunich 80Germany

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