Immunoassays to Detect Environmental Contaminants
Pesticides are by design, biologically active agents that are deliberately added to the environment to control plant or animal pests (Murphy 1986). Pesticides can be classified as being either “chemical” or “biological” in nature. Early chemical insecticides included inorganic materials such as sulfur, arsenic, and mercury. These were followed by several naturally occurring materials such as pyrethrum and rotenone. DDT came upon the scene in the 1940s and was the first widely used synthetic chemical pesticide. The environmental damage caused by this and other chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides highlighted by Rachel Carsons book Silent Spring (Carson 1962; Marco 1987) resulted in the gradual phasing out of these compounds and spurned the development of alternative chemical pesticides. Table 1 lists the broad general classes of chemical pesticides and herbicides and representative examples of each.
KeywordsAmerican Chemical Society Bacillus Thuringiensis Subspp Analytical Chemistry Technique Parasporal Crystal Pest Control Agent
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hammock B, Gee S, Cheung P, Miyamoto T, Goodrow M, Van Emon J, Saiber J (1987) Utility of immunoassay in pesticide trace analysis. In: Greenhalgh R, Roberts T (eds) Proc 6th Int Cong Pesticide chemistry, Ottawa, 10–15 Aug 1986. Blackwell, Oxford, p 309Google Scholar
- Mumma R, Brady J (1987) Immunological assays for agrochemicals. In: Greenhalgh R, Roberts T (eds) Proc 6th Int Cong Pesticide chemistry, Ottawa, 10–15 Aug 1986.Google Scholar
- Blackwell, Oxford, p 341 Murphy S (1986) Toxic effects of pesticides. In: Klaassen C, Amdur M, Doull J (eds) Casarett and Doulls toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 3rd edn. Macmillan, New York, p 519Google Scholar
- Wie S, Hammock B, Gill S, Grate E, Andrews R, Faust R, Bulla L, Schaefer C (1984) An improved enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection and quantification of the entomocidalparasporal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki and israelensis. Appl Bacteriol 57: 447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar