Current Methods for Rapid Detection and Identification of Mycobacteria

  • R. C. Good

Abstract

The character of mycobacterial diseases has remained basically unchanged throughout the years, but our perceptions of them have begun to change significantly, particularly in the past decade. Two diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, are the most important because they create the greatest problems in public health and result in prolonged suffering, and in some cases social stigma and ostracism. The etiologic agents, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. Leprae, respectively, are aptly named to identify the associated diseases, but the species differ in many respects, particularly in the ability to grow on artificial laboratory media. Therefore, laboratory diagnostic procedures have not been similar for the two diseases, but this may be changing. Laboratory studies have focused on development of rapid methods for diagnosis and determination of drug susceptibility, but there are many areas of the world where diagnostic procedures are still dependent on visualization of acid-fast bacilli, if a microscope is available. In other areas of the world, patterns of mycobacterial disease are changing markedly under the impact of immunosuppression following chemotherapy for various conditions or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), even before the development of frank signs of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Keywords

Bacillus Sponge Meningitis Turbidity Catalase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Thoracic Society (1981) Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases, 14th edn. Am Rev Respir Dis 123:343–358Google Scholar
  2. Brooks JB, Daneshvar MI, Fast DM, Good RC (1987) Selective procedures for detecting femtomole quantities of tuberculostearic acid in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by frequency-pulsed electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography. J Clin Microbiol 25: 1210–1206Google Scholar
  3. Brooks JB, Daneshvar MI, Haberberger RL, Mikhail IA (1990) Rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by frequency-pulsed electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography detection of carboxylic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol 28: 989–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Butler WR, Ahearn DG, Kilburn JO (1986) High-performance liquid chromatography of mycolic acids as a tool in the identification of Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacteriumspecies. J Clin Microbiol 23: 182–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler WR, Kilburn JO (1988) Identification of major slowly growing pathogenic mycobacteria and Mycobacterium gordonaeby high-performance liquid chromatography of their mycolic acids. J Clin Microbiol 26: 50–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Butler WR, Kilburn JO, Kubica GP (1987) High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of mycolic acids as an aid in laboratory identification of Rhodococcusand Nocardiaspecies. J Clin Microbiol 25: 2126–2131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Collins CH, Grange JM, Yates MD (1985) Organization and practice in tuberculosis bacteriology. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Conville PS, Witebsky FG (1989) Inter-bottle transfer of mycobacteria by the BACTEC 460. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 12: 401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Drake TA, Hindler JA, Berlin OGW, Bruckner DA (1987) Rapid identification of Mycobacterium aviumcomplex in culture using DNA probes. J Clin Microbiol 25: 1442–1445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Elias J, DeConing JP, Vorster SA, Joubert HF (1989) The rapid and sensitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by the detection of tuberculostearic acid in cerebrospinal fluid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. Clin Biochem 22: 463–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ellner PD, Kiehn TE, Cammarata R, Hosmer M (1988) Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic mycobacteria by combining radiometric and nucleic acid probe methods. J Clin Microbiol 26: 1349–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. French GL, Chan CY, Cheung SW, Teoh R, Humphries MJ, O’Mahony GO (1987a) Diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by detection of tuberculostearic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet 1: 117–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. French GL, Chan CY, Cheung SW, Oo KT (1987b) Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by detection of tuberculostearic acid in sputum by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. J Infect Dis 156: 356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gill VJ, Park CH, Stock F, Gosey LL, Witebsky FG, Masur H (1985) Use of lysis-centrifugation (Isolator) and radiometric (BACTEC) blood culture systems for the detection of mycobacteremia. J Clin Microbiol 22: 543–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Good RC (1980) Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States, 1979. J Infect Dis 142: 779–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Good RC (1985) Opportunistic pathogens in the genus Mycobacterium. Annu Rev Microbiol 39: 347–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Good RC, Snider DE Jr (1982) Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States, 1980. J Infect Dis 146: 829–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Good RC, Silcox VA, Kilburn JO, Plikaytis BD (1985) Identification and drug susceptibility test results for Mycobacteriumspp. Clin Microbiol Newslett 7: 133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jenkins PA, Pattyn SR, Portaels F (1982) Diagnostic Bacteriology. In: Ratledge C, Stanford J (eds) The biology of the mycobacteria. Academic Press, London, pp 441–470Google Scholar
  20. Kiehn TE, Cammarata R (1986) Laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 24: 708–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiehn TE, Edwards FF, Brannon P, Tsang AY, Maio M, Gold JWM, Whimbey E, Wong B, McClatchy JK, Armstrong D (1985) Infections caused by Mycobacterium aviumcomplex in immunocompromised patients: diagnosis by blood culture and fecal examination, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and morphological and seroagglutination characteristics. J Clin Microbiol 21: 168–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kohne DE (1986) Application of DNA probe tests to the diagnosis of infectious disease. Am Clin Prod Rev 1: 20–29Google Scholar
  23. Kubica GP (1973) Differential identification of mycobacteria. VII. Key features for identification of clinically significant mycobacteria. Am Rev Respir Dis 107: 9–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kubica GP (1984) Clinical microbiology. In: Kubica GP, Wayne LG (eds) The mycobacteria: a sourcebook. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 133–175Google Scholar
  25. Lambert MA, Moss CW, Silcox VA, Good RC (1986) Analysis of mycolic acid cleavage products and cellular fatty acids of Mycobacteriumspecies by capillary gas chromatography. J Clin Microbiol 23: 731–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Larsson L, Mardh P-A, Odham G (1979) Detection of tuberculostearic acid in mycobacteria and Nocardiae by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring. J Chromatogr 163: 221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Larsson L, Mardh P-A, Odhman G, Westerdahl G (1980) Detection of tuberculostearic acid in biological specimens by means of glass capillary gas chromatography-electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometry, utilizing selected ion monitoring. J Chromatogr 182: 402–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Larsson L, Mardh P-A, Odham G, Westerdahl G (1981), Use of selected ion monitoring for detection of tuberculostearic and C32 mycocerosic acid in mycobacteria and in five-day-old cultures of sputum specimens from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Acta Path Microbiol Scand, Sect B 89: 245–251Google Scholar
  29. Larsson L, Odham G, Westerdahl G, Olsson B (1987) Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by selected-ion monitoring: improved analysis of tuberculostearate in sputum using negative-ion mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 25: 893–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Laszlo A, Handzel V (1986) Radiometric diagnosis of mycobacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol 5: 152–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maliwan N, Reid RW, Pliska SR, Bird TJ, Zvetina JR (1988) Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosiscultures by gas-liquid chromatography and a computer-aided pattern recognition model. J Clin Microbiol 26: 182–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mann MD, Macfarlane CM, Verburg CJ, Eiggelinkhuizen J (1982) The bromide partition test and CSF adenosine deaminase activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in children. S Afr Med J 62: 431–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mardth P-A, Larsson L, Holby N, Engback HC, Odham G (1983) Tuberculostearic acid as a diagnostic marker in tuberculous meningitis. Lancet 1: 367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Middlebrook G, Reggiardo Z, Tigertt WD (1977) Automatable radiometric detection of growth of Mycobacteriumtuberculosis in selective media. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 1066–1069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Minnikin DE, Goodfellow M (1980) Lipid composition in the classification and identification of acid-fast baceria. In: Goodfellow M, Board RG (eds) Microbiological classification and identification. Academic Press, London, pp 189–256Google Scholar
  36. Minnikin DE, Goodfellow M, Collins MD (1978) Lipid composition in the classification and identification of coryneform and related taxa. In: Bousfield IJ, Callely AG (eds) Coryneform bacteria. Academic Press, London, pp 85–160Google Scholar
  37. Minnikin DE, Hutchinson IG, Caldicott AB, Goodfellow M (1980) Thin-layer chromatography of methanolysates of mycolic acid-containing bacteria. J Chromatogr 188: 221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morgan MA, Doerr KA, Hempel HO, Goodman NLK, Roberts GD (1985) Evaluation of the p-nitro-a-acetylamino-ß-hydroxy-propiophenone differential test for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosiscomplex. J Clin Microbiol 21: 634–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Musial CE, Tice LS, Stockman L, Roberts GD (1988) Identification of mycobacteria from culture by using Gen-Probe rapid diagnostic system for Mycobacterium aviumcomplex and Mycobacterium tuberculosiscomplex. J Clin Microbiol 26: 2120–2123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ocana I, Martinez-Vazquez JM, Ribera E, Segura RM, Pascual C (1986) Adenosine deaminase activity in the diagnosis of lymphocytic pleural effusions of tuberculous, neoplastic and lymphomatous origin. Tubercle 67: 141–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Padgitt PH, Moshier SE (1987) Mycobacterium poriferae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species isolated from a marine sponge. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ribera E, Martinez-Vazquez JM, Ocana I, Segura RM, Pascual C (1987) Activity of adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis and follow-up of tuberculous meningitis in adults. J Infect Dis 155: 603–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roberts GD, Goodman NL, Heifets L, Larsh HW, Lindner TH, McClatchy JK, McGinnis MR, Siddiqi SH, Wright P (1983) Evaluation of the BACTEC radiometric method for recovery of mycobacteria and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosisfrom acid-fast smear-positive specimens. J Clin Microbiol 18: 689–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Salfinger M, Kafader FM, Hardegger U, Wust J (1988) identification of contaminants during primary isolation of mycobacteria in the BACTEC system with the antimicrobial supplement PACT. Zentralbl Bakteriol Hyg A 268:209–212Google Scholar
  45. Salfinger M, Stool EW, Piot D, Heifets L (1988) Comparison of three methods for recovery of Mycobacterium aviumcomplex from blood specimens. J Clin Microbiol 26: 1225–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Segura RM, Pascual C, Ocana I, Martinez-Vasquez JM, Ruiz RI, Pelegri MD (1989) Adenosine deaminase in body fluids: a useful diagnostic tool in tuberculosis. Clin Biochem 22: 141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smithwick RW (1976) Laboratory manual for acid-fast microscopy, 2nd edn. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Center for Disease Control, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  48. Snider DE Jr, Good RC, Kilburn JO, Laskowski LF Jr, Lusk RH, Marr JJ, Reggiardo Z, Middlebrook G (1981) Rapid drug-susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 402–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Tsukamura M, Yano I, Imaeda T (1986) Mycobacterium moriokaense sp. nov., a rapidly growing nonphotochromogenic Mycobacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 36:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wayne LG (1979) The “atypical” mycobacteria: recognition and disease association. Crit Rev Microbiol 12: 185–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wayne LG, Kubica GP (1986) Genus MycobacteriumLehmann and Neumann 1896. In: Sneath PHA, Mair DNS, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (eds) Bergy’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1436–1457Google Scholar
  52. Wayne LG, Engbaek HC, Engel HWB, Froman S, Gross W, Hawkins J, Kappler W, Karlson AG, Kleeberg HH, Krasnow I, Kubica GP, McDurmont C, Nel EE, Pattyn SR, Schroder KH, Showalter S, Tarnok I, Tsukamura M, Vergmann B, Wolinsky E (1974) Highly reproducible techniques for use in systematic bacteriology in the genus Mycobacterium: tests for pigment, urease, resistance to sodium chloride, hydrolysis of Tween 80, and p-galactosidase. Int J Syst Bacteriol 24: 412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wayne LG, Engel HWB, Grassi C, Gross W, Hawkins J, Jenkins PA, Kappler W, Kleeberg HH, Krasnow I, Nel EE, Pattyn SR, Richards PA, Showalter S, Slosarek M, Szabo I, Tarnok I, Tsukamura M, Vergkmann B, Wolinsky E (1976) Highly reproducible techniques for use in systematic bacteriology in the genus Mycobacterium: tests for niacin and catalase and for resistance to isoniazid, thiophene 2-carboxylic acid hydrazide, hydroxylamine and p-nitrobenzoate. Int J Syst Bacteriol 26: 311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Woodley CL, Silcox VA, Floyd MM, Kubica GP (1989) The use of DNA probes for rapidly identifying cultures of Mycobacterium. In: Kleger B, Jungkind D, Hinks E, Miller LA (eds) Rapid methods in clinical microbiology: present status and future trends. Plenum, New York, pp 51–56Google Scholar
  55. Young LS (1988) Mycobacterium avium complex infection. J Infect Dis 157:863–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Young LS, Inderlied CB, Berlin OG, Gottlieb MS (1986) Mycobacterial infections in AIDS patients, with an emphasis on the Mycobacterium aviumcomplex. Rev Infect Dis 8: 1024–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Good
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Bacterial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease ControlRespiratory Diseases BranchAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations