Pacemakers in Children

  • J. I. Stein
  • D. Dacar
  • H. Metzler
  • P. Sovinz
  • A. Beitzke
Conference paper


Both historical reports of stimulating the heart by shocking it through the chest in the 18th century and the first attempts to pace the heart percutaneously in 1932 dealt with children [1]. Despite this, permanent pacemaker implantations in children, though increasing in number, still account for only a small percentage of implanted pacemaker systems. Ninety percent of patients with pacemakers are older than 60 years.


Pacemaker Implantation Sick Sinus Syndrome Complete Atrioventricular Block Dual Chamber Pace Pacemaker System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gamble WJ, Owens JP (1977) Pacemaker therapy for conduction defects in the pediatric population. In: Roberts N, Gelband H (eds) Cardiac arrhythmias in the neonate, infant and child. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 469–525.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ector H, Dhooghe G, Daenen W, Stalpaert G, Hauwaert van der L, Geest De H (1985) Pacing in children. Br Heart J 53:541–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Epstein ML, Knauf DG, Alexander JA (1986) Long-term follow-up of transvenous cardiac pacing in children. Am J Cardiol 57:889–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Esscher E, Michaelsson M (1979) Assessment and management of complete heart block. In: Godman MJ, Marquis RM (eds) Heart disease in the newborn. Pediatric cardiologgy, vol 2 Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 433–441.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gillette PC, Zeigler V, Bradham GB, Kinsella P (1988) Pediatric transvenous pacing: a concern for venous thrombosis? PACE 11:1935–1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldmann BS, Williams WG, Hill T, Hesslein PS, McLaughlin PR, Trusler GA, Baird RJ (1985) Permanent cardiac pacing after open heart surgery: congenital heart disease. PACE 8:732–739.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kugler J, Monsour W, Blodgett C, Cheatham J, Gumbiner C, Hofschire P, Watson L, Fleming W (1988) Comparison of myoepicardial pacemaker leads: follow-up in 80 children, adolescents and young adults. PACE 11:2216–2222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGrath LB, Gonzalez-Lavin L, Morse DP, Levett JM (1988) Pacemaker system failure and other events in children with surgically induced heart block. PACE 11:1182–1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Serwer GA, Mericle JM (1987) Evaluation of pacemaker pulse generator and patient longevity in patients aged 1 day to 20 years. Am J Cardiol 59:824–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Serwer GA, Mericle JM, Armstrong BE (1988) Epicardial ventricular electrode longevity in children. Am J Cardiol 61:104–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Villain E, Seletti L, Kachaner J, Planche C, Sidi D, Bidois Le J (1989) Artificial cardiac stimulation in the newborn infant with complete congenital atrioventricular block. Study of 16 cases. Arch Mal Coeur 82:739–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walsh CA, McAlister HF, Andrews CA, Steeg CN, Eisenberg R, Furman S (1988) Pacemaker in children: a 21-year experience. PACE 11:1940–1944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ward DE (1983) Permanent pacing in children. In: Anderson RH, Macartney FJ, Shinebourne EA, Tynan M (eds) Pediatric cardiology, vol 5 Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 34–45.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ward DE, Signy M, Oldershaw P, Jones S, Shinebourne EA (1982) Cardiac pacing in children. Arch dis Child 57:514–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alpern D, Uzark K, Dick II M (1989) Psychosocial responses of children to cardiac pacemakers. J Pediatr 114:494–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kugler JD, Danford DA (1989) Pacemakers in children: an update. Am Heart J 117:665–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brüggemann G, Steil E, Barth H, Huth C, Apitz J (1988) Cardiac pacing in children. Klin Pädiatr 200:399–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karpawich PP, Perry BL, Farooki ZQ, Clapp SK, Jackson WL, Cicalese CA, Green EW (1986) Pacing in children and young adults with nonsurgical atrioventricular block: comparison of single-rate ventricular and dual-chamber modes. Am Heart J 13:316–321.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karpawich PP, Gillette PC, Carson A Jr, Hesslein PS, Porter CJ, McNamara DG (1981) Congenital complete atrioventricular block: clinical and electrophysiologic predictors of need for pacemaker insertion. Am J Cardiol 48:1098–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lincoln C, Butler P, Logan-Sinclair R, Anderson RH (1979) A cardiac conduction monitor and probe for intraoperative identification of conduction tissue. Br Heart J 42:339–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Iberer F, Tscheliessnigg W, Stenzl D, Dacar D, Rigler B, Mächler H, Kraft-Kinz J (1987) Seven years experience with growth-adapting electrodes for transvenous pacing in childhood. PACE 10:690–698.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ward DE, Jones S, Shinebourne EA (1987) Long-term transvenous pacing in children weighing ten kilograms or less. Int J Cardiol 15:112–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Till JA, Jones S, Rowland E, Shinebourne EA, Ward DE (1989) Endocardial pacing in children: long term clinical experience with steroid eluting lead. III. World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology, Bangkok, 1989, p 178 (abstract).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spotnitz HM 81990) Transvenous pacing in infants and children with congenital heart disease. Ann Thorac Surg 49:495-496.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frye RL, Collins JJ, DeSanctis RW, Dodge HT, Dreifus LS, Fisch C, Gettes LS, Gillette PC, Parsonnet V, Reeves J, Weinberg SL (1984) Guidelines for permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation. Circulation 70:331A–339A.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dreifus LS, Fisch C, Griffin JC, Gillette PC, Mason JW, Parsonnet V (1991) Guidelines of cardiac pacemakers and antiarrhythmia devices. JACC 18:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nikol S, Minale C, Engelhardt W, Messmer BJ (1990) New site for pacemaker generators in children. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 4:342–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kiso I, Hirotani T, Maehara T, Yozu R, Umezu Y, Ishikura Y (1990) Intrathoracic pacemaker implantation in children. Kyobu Geka 43:280–282PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. I. Stein
  • D. Dacar
  • H. Metzler
  • P. Sovinz
  • A. Beitzke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations