Problems Arising from Deflection Routing: Live-lock, Lockout, Congestion and Message Reassembly

  • N. F. Maxemchuk
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 72)


Deflection routing is a technique that has been proposed for slotted, metropolitan area networks. When there are no buffers available at an intermediate node in the network, packets of data are forced to take longer paths through the network. Because this technique only uses local information at a node, it is possible to apply it to high rate networks in which the propagation delay on a link is much greater than the time it takes to transmit a packet.

Several problems encountered with this technique are described in this paper, including live-lock, source lockout, congestion spreading, and reassembly buffer overflow. Live-lock and congestion spreading are unique to deflection routing, source lockout occurs in many slotted networks, and reassembly buffer overflow is common in datagram networks. It is shown that random deflection rules eliminate live-locks, and that the other problems can be managed by end-to-end mechanisms when they persist.


Network Throughput Output Link Outgoing Link Access Rate Link Utilization 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. F. Maxemchuk
    • 1
  1. 1.AT&T Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA

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