Soziokulturelle Aspekte bei Eßstörungen

  • D. M. Garner

Zusammenfassung

Als Beleg dafür, daß soziokulturelle Faktoren die Entstehung von Eßstörungen begünstigen, wurde von verschiedenen Autoren die relativ gleichbleibende Verteilung von Alter, Geschlecht und sozialer Klasse sowie die offensichtlich zunehmende Häufigkeit dieser Erkrankungen angeführt (Bruch 1978; Garner u. Garfinkel 1980; Selvini-Palazzoli 1978). Obwohl jede einzelne epidemiologische Beobachtung für sich genommen auch alternative Erklärungsmöglichkeiten zuläßt, weist eine Gesamtbetrachtung auf das Zugrundeliegen kultureller Einflüsse hin. Das Hauptargument für diese Sichtweise ist wahrscheinlich die steigende Prävalenz. Sie wurde insbesondere darauf zurückgeführt, daß Frauen einem erhöhten soziokulturellen Druck ausgesetzt sind, schlank zu sein und demzufolge ihre Nahrungsaufnahme einzuschränken (Bruch 1978; Garner u. Garfinkel 1980; Garner et al. 1980; Selvini-Palazzoli 1978). Bereits vor mehr als 20 Jahren nannte Bruch (1978) dies eine „Epidemie, deren Verbreitung auf soziokulturelle Einflüsse zurückzuführen ist“.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Ardell M, Ardell C (1985) Portrait of an anorexic: a mother and daughter’s story. Flight, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  2. Bardwick J (1971) The psychology of women: a study of bio-cultural conflicts. Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett WB, Gurin J (1982) The dieter’s dilemma: eating less and weighing more. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Berscheid E, Dion K, Walster E, Walster GW (1971) Physical attractiveness and dating choice: a test of the matching hypothesis. J Exp Social Psychol 7:173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berscheid E, Walster F, Bohrnstedt G (1973) The happy American body: a survey report. Psychology today 1:119–131.Google Scholar
  6. Bruch H (1978) The golden cage: the enigma of anorexia nervosa. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  7. Bruch H (1982) Anorexia nervosa. Therapy and theory. Am J Psychiat 139:1531–1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buhrich N (1981) Frequency of presentation of anorexia nervosa in Malaysia. Austr N Z J Psychiatry 15:153–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Button EJ, Whitehouse A (1981) Subclinical anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med 11:509–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casper RC (1983) On the emergence of bulimia nervosa as a syndrome: a historical view. Int J Eating Disord 2:3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiodo J, Latimer PR (1983) Vomiting as a learned weight control technique in bulimia. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 14:131–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke MG, Palmer RL (1983) Eating attitudes and neurotic symptoms in university students. Br J Psychiatry 142:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper PJ, Fairburn CG (1983) Binge-eating and self-induced vomiting in the community: a preliminary study. Br J Psychiatry 142:139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crisp AH, Palmer RL, Kalucy RS (1976) How common is anorexia nervosa? A prevalence study. Br J Psychiatry 218:549–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Curran JP (1977) Convergence toward a single sexual standard? In: Byrne D, Byrne LA (eds) Exploring human sexuality. Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Dally PJ (1969) Anorexia nervosa, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  17. DeLamater J, MacCorquodale P (1979) Premarital sexuality: attitudes, relationships and behavior. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  18. Druss RG, Silverman JA (1979) Body image and perfectionism of ballerinas: comparison and contrast with anorexia nervosa. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1:115–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duddle M (1973) An increase in anorexia nervosa in a university population. Br J Psychiatry 123:711–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dwyer JT, Feldman JJ, Mayer J (1970) The social psychology of dieting. J Health and Social behavior 11:269–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fairburn CG, Cooper PJ (1982) Self-induced vomiting and bulimia nervosa: an undetected problem. Br Med J 284:1153–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ford CS, Beach FA (1952) Patterns of sexual behavior. Ace Books, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Frisch RE (1983) Fatness and reproduction: delayed menarche and amenorrhea of ballet dancers and college athletes. In: Darby PL, Garfinkel PE, Garner DM, Coscina DV (eds) Anorexia nervosa: recent developments. Alan R Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Garfinkel PE, Garner DM (1982) Anorexia nervosa: a multidimensional perspective. Brunner/Mazel, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Garner DM, Garfinkel PE (1980) Sociocultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med 10:647–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garner DM, Garfinkel PE, Schwartz D, Thompson M (1980) Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychol Rep 47:483–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garner DM, Garfinkel PE, Olmsted MP (1983 a) An overview of the socio-cultural factors in the development of anorexia nervosa. In: Darby PL, Garfinkel PE, Garner DM, Coscina DV (eds) Anorexia nervosa: recent developments. Alan R Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Garfinkel PE (1983 b) Does anorexia nervosa occur on a continuum? Subgroups of weight-preoccupied women and their relationship to anorexia nervosa. Int J Eating Disord 2:11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Polivy J, Garfinkel PE (1984) Comparison between weight-preoccupied women and anorexia nervosa. Psychosom Med 46:255–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Garner DM, Rockert W, Olmsted MP, Johnson CL, Coscina DV (1985) Psychoeducational principles in the treatment of bulimia and anorexia nervosa. In: Garner DM, Garfinkel PE (eds) Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Guilford, New York, 515–572.Google Scholar
  31. Glamour Magazine (1984) February.Google Scholar
  32. Gray SH (1977) Social aspects of body image: perception of normalcy of weight and affect of college undergraduates. Percept Mot Skills 45:1035–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall A (1978) Family structure and relationships of 50 female anorexia nervosa patients. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 12:263–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Halmi KA, Falk JR, Schwartz E (1981) Binge-eating and vomiting: a survey of a college population. Psychol Med 11:697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton LH, Brooks-Gunn J, Warren MP (1985) Sociocultural influences on eating disorders in professional female ballet dancers. Int J Eating Disord 4:465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hampton MC, Huenemann RL, Shapiro LR, Mitchell BW, Behnke AR (1966) A longitudinal study of gross body composition and body conformation and their association with food and activity in a teenage population: anthropometric evaluation of a body build. Am J Clin Nutr 19:422–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hsu LKG (1987) Are the eating disorders becoming more common in blacks. Int J Eating Disord 6:113–124.Google Scholar
  38. Huenemann RL, Shapiro LR, Hampton MC, Mitchell BW (1966) A longitudinal story of gross body composition and body conformation and their association with food and activity in a teenage population. Am J Clin Nutr 18:325–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ikemi Y, Ago Y, Nakagawa S et al. (1974) Psychosomatic mechanism under social changes in Japan. J Psychosom Res 18:15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jensen L (1968) Anorexia nervosa. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 203:113–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones DJ, Fox MM, Babigan HM, Hutton HE (1980) Epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in Munroe County, New York: 1960–1976. Psychosom Med 42:551–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jourard SM, Secord PF (1955) Body cathexis and the ideal female figure. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 50:243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kendell RE, Hall DJ, Hailey A, Babigan HM (1973) The epidemiology of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med 3:200–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kinsey AC, Pomeroy W, Martin C, Gebhart P (1953) Sexual behavior in the human female. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  45. Koff E, Rierden J, Silverstone E (1978) Changes in representation of body image as a function of menarcheal status. Dev Psychol 14:635–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kurman L (1978) An analysis of messages concerning food, eating behaviors and ideal body image on prime-time American network television. Dissertation Abstracts, New York University, pp 244.Google Scholar
  47. Landy D, Sigall H (1974) Beauty is talent: Task evaluation as a function of the performer’s physical attractiveness. J Pers Soc Psychol 29:299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meermann R (1983) Experimental investigation of disturbances of body image estimation in anorexia nervosa patients and ballet and gymnastics pupils. Int J Eating Disord 2:91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nylander I (1971) The feeling of being fat and dieting in a school population: epidemiologic interview investigation. Acta Sociomedica Scand 3:17–26.Google Scholar
  50. Olmsted MP, Garner DM (1986) The significance of self-induced vomiting as a weight control technique in non-clinical samples. Int J Eating Disord 5:683–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pyle R, Mitchell JE, Eckert E, Halverson P, Neuman P, Goff G (1983) The incidence of bulimia in freshman college students. Int J Eating Disord 2:75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rierden J, Koff E (1980 a) The psychological impact of menarche: Integrative versus disruptive changes. J Youth Adolesc 9:49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rierden J, Koff E (1980 b) Representation of the female body by early and late adolescent girls. J Youth Adolesc 9:339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rudofsky B (1972) The unfashionable human body. Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Russell GFM (1979) Bulimia nervosa: an ominous variant of anorexia nervosa? Psychol Med 9:429–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Russell GFM (1986) Bulimia revisited. Int J Eating Disord 4A:681–692.Google Scholar
  57. Ryle JA (1939) Discussion on anorexia nervosa. Proc R Soc Med 32:735–737.Google Scholar
  58. Schwartz RC, Barrett MJ, Saba G (1985) Family therapy for bulimia. In: Garner DM, Garfinkel PE (eds) Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Guilford, New York, 280–307.Google Scholar
  59. Selvini-Palazzoli M (1978) Self-starvation: from individual to family therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Jason Aronson, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Szmukler GI, Eisler I, Gillies C, Hayward ME (1985) The implications of anorexia nervosa in a ballet school. J Psychiatr Res 19:177–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Theander S (1970) Anorexia nervosa: A psychiatric investigation of 94 female patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand [Suppl] 214:1–194.Google Scholar
  62. Thompson MG, Schwartz DM (1982) Life adjustment of women with anorexia nervosa and anorexia-like behavior. Int J Eating Disord 1:47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vandereycken W, Meermann R (1984) Anorexia nervosa: Is prevention possible? Int J Psychiatry Med 14:191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wooley SC, Wooley OW (1980) Eating disorders: obesity and anorexia. In: Brodsky A, Hare-Mustin R (eds) Women and psychotherapy: an assessment of research and practice. Guilford, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Garner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations