Micropropagation of Apple (Malus domestica Barkh.)

  • W. D. Lane
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 18)


The apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) has been a well-known and sought-after species since the times of Adam and Eve. It is grown for its high quality fruit, which excels in attractiveness and good taste, being firm and juicy. Its fruit is sweet, having about 17% sugar, balanced with malic acid. Apples have remained popular throughout the ages because of their good taste, but also because they are not as perishable as many other temperate and topical fruits. They are ideally suited as a refreshment between meals. Most cultivars have a fruit size of 250–300 g, which provides about 100 calories of nutrition.


Shoot Culture Apple Cultivar Malus Domestica Apple Rootstock Fruiting Cultivar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott A J, Whiteley E (1976) Culture of Malus tissue in vitro. I. Multiplication of apple plants from isolated shoot apices. Sci Hortic 4: 183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alskieff J, Villemur P (1978) Greffage in vitro d’apex sur des plantèles décapitées de Pommier (Malus pumila Mill). C R Acad Sci Paris 281: 1115–1118Google Scholar
  3. Anon (1977) Stem tip culture of Malus Mill, in vitro. Acta Bot Sin 19: 244–245Google Scholar
  4. Brainerd KE, Fuchigami LH (1981) Acclimatization of aseptically cultured apple plants to low relative humidity. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106: 515–518Google Scholar
  5. Brainerd KE, Fuchigami LH (1982) Stomatal functioning of in vitro and greenhouse apple leaves in darkness, mannitol, ABA, and C02. J Exp Bot 33: 388–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Druart P, Kevers C, Bokus P, Gaspar T (1982) In vitro promotion of root formation by apple shoots through darkness effect on endogenous phenols and peroxidases. Z Pflanzenphysiol 108: 429–436Google Scholar
  7. Dunstan DI, Turner KE (1984) The acclimatization of micropropagated plants. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol 1. Laboratory procedures and their applications. Academic Press, New York London, pp 123–129Google Scholar
  8. Dutcher RD, Powell LE (1972) Culture of apple shoots from buds in vitro. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 97: 511–514Google Scholar
  9. Elliott RF (1972) Axenic culture of shoot apices of apple. NZ J Bot 10: 254 - 258Google Scholar
  10. Fiorino P, Loreti F (1987) Propagation of fruit trees by tissue culture in Italy. Hort Science 22: 353–358Google Scholar
  11. Hegedus P, Phan CT (1983) Actions de phenols sur les malformations observées chez les portegreffes de pommiers M-26 et 0-3 cultivés in vitro. Rev Can Biol Exp 42: 33–38Google Scholar
  12. Huang S, Millikan DF (1980) In vitro micrografting of apple shoot tips. Hort Science 15: 741–743Google Scholar
  13. Hutchinson JF (1981) Tissue culture propagation of fruit trees. In: Rao AN (ed) COSTED Symp Tissue culture of economically important plants, Singapore, pp 113–120Google Scholar
  14. Hutchinson JF (1984) Factors affecting shoot proliferation and root initiation in organ cultures of the apple Northern Spy. Sci Hortic 22: 347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hutchinson JF, Zimmerman RH (1987) Tissue culture of temperate fruit and nut trees. Hortic Rev 9: 273–349Google Scholar
  16. Huth W (1978) Kultur von Apfelpflanzen aus apikalenn Meristem. Gartenbauwissenschaft 43: 163–166Google Scholar
  17. James DJ (1983a) Adventitious root formation in vitro in apple rootstocks (Malus pumila). I. Factors affecting the length of the auxin-sensitive phase in M.9. Physiol Plant 57: 149–153Google Scholar
  18. James DJ (1983b) Adventitious root formation in vitro in apple rootstocks (Malus pumila). II. Uptake and distribution of indol-3yl-acetic acid during the auxin-sensitive phase in M.9 and M.26. Physiol Plant 57: 154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. James DJ, Thurbon IJ (1979) Rapid in vitro rooting of the apple rootstock M.9. J Hortic Sci 54: 309–311Google Scholar
  20. James DJ, Thurbon IJ (1981) Phenolic compounds and other factors controlling rhizogenesis in vitro in the apple rootstocks M.9 and M.26. Z Pflanzenphysiol 105: 11–20Google Scholar
  21. Jones OP (1967) Effect of benzyl adenine on isolated apple shoots. Nature (London) 215: 1514–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones OP (1976) Effect of phloridzin and phloroghicinol on apple shoots. Nature (London) 262: 392–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jones OP (1979) Propagation in vitro of apple trees and other woody fruit plants: methods and applications. Sci Hortic 30: 44–48Google Scholar
  24. Jones OP (1983) In vitro propagation of tree crops. In: Mantell SH, Smith H (eds) Plant biotechnology. Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 139–159Google Scholar
  25. Jones OP, Hopgood ME, O’Farrell D (1977) Propagation in vitro of M.26 apple rootstocks. J Hortic Sci 52: 235–238Google Scholar
  26. Jones OP, Pontikis CA, Hopgood ME (1979) Propagation in vitro of five apple scion cultivars. J Hortic Sci 54: 155–158Google Scholar
  27. Jones Op, Pontikis CA, Hopgood ME (1979) Propagation in vitro of five apple scion cultivars. J Hortic Sci 54: 155–158Google Scholar
  28. Lane WD (1978) Regeneration of apple plants from shoot meristem tips. Plant Sci Lett 13: 281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lane WD (1982) Tissue culture and in vitro propagation of deciduous fruit and nut species. In: Tomes, DT Ellis, PM, Herney, KJ Kasha, Peterson RL (eds) Applications of plant cell and tissue culture to agriculture and industry. Univ Press, Guelph, pp 163–185Google Scholar
  30. Lane WD, Hansen A J (1985) Elimination of apple chlorotic leafspot virus from apple shoot cultures by ribavirin. Plant Disease 69: 134–135Google Scholar
  31. Lane WD, McDougald (1982) Shoot tissue culture of apple: comparative response to five cultivars to cytokinin and auxin. Can J Plant Sci 62: 689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lane WD, Looney NE, Mage F (1982) A selective medium for compared (dwarf) mutants of apple. Theor Appl Genet 61: 219–223Google Scholar
  33. Letham DS (1958) Cultivation of apple fruit tissue in vitro. Nature (London) 182: 473–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Letham DS (1960) Growth requirements of pome-fruit tissues. Nature (London) 425–426Google Scholar
  35. Lundergan CA, Janick J (1979) Low temperature storage of in vitro apple shoots. Hort Science 14: 514Google Scholar
  36. Nemeth G (1981) Adventitious root induction by substituted 2-chloro-3-phenyl-propionitriles in apple rootstocks cultured in vitro Sci Hortic 14: 253–259Google Scholar
  37. Ochatt SJ, Caso MH (1983) In vitro meristem culture of M.4 apple (Malus pumila Mill) I. Optimal nutrient medium. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 2: 39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pua EC, Chong C (1984) Requirement for sorbitol as carbon source for in vitro propagation of Malus robusta No. 5. Can J Bot 62: 1545–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pua EC, Chong C, Rousselle GL (1983) In vitro propagation of Ottawa 3 apple rootstock. Can J Plant Sci 63: 183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Quoirin M (1977) Premiers résultats obtenus dans la culture in vitro du méristeme apical de sujets porte-greffe de pommier. Bull Rech Agron Gembloux 9: 189–192Google Scholar
  41. Quoirin M, Lepoivre P, Borus P (1977) Un premier bilan de 10 années de recherches sur les cultures de méristèmes et la multiplication in vitro de fruitiers ligneux. In: Bull Rech Agron Gembloux 1976–1977; and Rapp Synth CRAE, Gembloux (Belg)Google Scholar
  42. Rehder A (1958) Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America. MacMillan, New York, 996 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Simmonds J (1983) Direct rooting of micropropagated M.26 apple rootstocks. Sci Hortic 21: 233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singha S (1982) Infuence of agar concentration on in vitro shoot proliferation of Malus sp. Almey and Pyrus communis Seckel. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 107: 657–660Google Scholar
  45. Singha S, Oberly SH, Townsend EC (1987) Changes in nutrient composition and pH of the culture medium during in vitro shoot proliferation of crabapple and pear. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 11: 209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Skirvin RM, Kouider M, Joung H, Korban SS (1986). Apple (Malus domestica Borkh) In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in Agriculture and forestry vol 1: Trees I, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 183–198Google Scholar
  47. Smith MWG (1971) National apple register of the United Kingdom. Brit Minist Agric, Fish, Food, 652 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Snir I, Erez A (1980) In vitro propagation of mailing merton apple rootstocks. Hort Science 15: 597–598Google Scholar
  49. Sriskandrajah S, Mullins MG (1981) Micropropagation of Granny Smith apple and factors affecting root formation in vitro. J Hortic Sci 56: 71–76Google Scholar
  50. Sriskandarajah S, Mullins MG, Naiv Y (1982) Induction of adventitious rooting in vitro in difficult to propagate cultivars of apple. Plant Sci Lett 24: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Travers JN, Starbuck CJ, Natarella NJ (1989) Effects of culture medium on in vitro rooting on Antonovka 313 apple. Hort Science 20: 1051–1052Google Scholar
  52. Tukey HB (1934) Artificial culture methods for isolated embryos of deciduous fruits. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 31: 313–322Google Scholar
  53. Walkey DG (1972) Production of apple plantlets from axillary-bud meristems. Can J Plant Sci 52: 1085–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Welander M (1983) In vitro rooting of the apple rootstock M.26 in adult and juvenile growth phases and acclimatization of the plantlets. Physiol Plant 58: 231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Welander M (1985) In vitro shoot and root formation in the apple cultivar Akero. Ann Bot (London) 55: 249–261Google Scholar
  56. Welander M, Huntreiser I (1981) The rooting ability of shoots raised in vitro from the apple rootstock AZ in juvenile and adult growth phase, Physiol Planta 53: 301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Welander M, Snygg JO (1987) Effect of applied and endogenous auxin on callus and root formation of in vitro shoots of apple rootstocks M.26 and A.2. Ann Bot (London) 59: 439–443Google Scholar
  58. Werner EM, Boe A A (1980) In vitro propagation of Mailing 7 apple rootstock. Hort Science 15: 509–510Google Scholar
  59. Zimmerman RH (ed) (1980) Proc Conf Nursery production of fruit plants through tissue culture - applications and feasibility. US Dep Agric, Sci Educ Admin ARR-NE-11Google Scholar
  60. Zimmerman RH (1981) Micropropagation of fruit plants. Acta Hortic 120: 217–222Google Scholar
  61. Zimmerman RH (1983) Factors affecting in vitro propagation of apple cultivars. Acta Hortic 131: 171–178Google Scholar
  62. Zimmerman RH (1984) Rooting apple cultivars in vitro: interactions among light, temperature, phloroglucinol and auxin. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 3: 301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zimmerman RH (1986) Propagation of fruit, nut, and vegetable crops - overview. In: Zimmerman RH, Griesbach RJ, Hammerschlag FA, Lawson RH (eds) Tissue culture as a plant production system for horticultural crops. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 183–200Google Scholar
  64. Zimmerman RH, Broome OC (1981) Phloroglucinol and in vitro rooting of apple cultivar cuttings. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106: 648–652Google Scholar
  65. Zimmerman RH, Fordham I (1985) Simplified method for rooting apple cultivars in vitro. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 110: 34–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. Lane
    • 1
  1. 1.Research StationAgriculture CanadaSummerlandCanada

Personalised recommendations