Woody Plant Micropropagation with Cytokinins

  • J. W. Einset
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 17)

Abstract

Micropropagation is an important technology for multiplying several species of woody plants. In the US alone, about 30 million woody plant propagules for the nursery trade, with a market value of approximately US $15 million, are produced annually micropropagation. When compared with other potential markets in plant biotechnology (e.g., hybrid seed corn is a $1.5 billion-per-annum market in the US), the commercial value of woody plant micropropagation is small. Nevertheless, micropropagation’s impact on woody plant technology during the last 15 years has been substantial (Torrey 1985; Zimmerman et al. 1986). If the technology could be extended to hard-to-propagate species that are not currently amenable to micropropagation, its commercial use as a tool r rapid clonal multiplication and for producing disease-free propagules could be ded significantly (Kyte 1983; Dirr and Heuser 1987; Einset 1987b).

Keywords

HPLC Corn Catalysis Adenosine Adenine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cronquist A (1981) An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Dirr MA, Heuser CW Jr (1987) The reference manual of woody plant propagation: from seed to tissue culture. Varsity Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  3. Einset JW (1984a) Biotechnology at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia 44: 27–33Google Scholar
  4. Einset JW (1984b) Conversion of N-isopentenyladenine to zeatin by Actinidia tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 124: 470–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Einset JW (1985a) Chemicals that regulate plants. Arnoldia 45: 28–34Google Scholar
  6. Einset JW (1985b) Role of cytokinin in woody plant micropropagation. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 35: 608–615Google Scholar
  7. Einset JW (1986a) Zeatin biosynthesis from N6-(A2-isopentenyl)adenine in Actinidia and other woody plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 83: 972–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Einset JW (1986b) A practical guide to woody plant micropropagation. Arnoldia 46: 36–44Google Scholar
  9. Einset JW (1986c) Biosynthesis of zeatin from N6–(A2-isopentenyl)adenine in Actinidia: sites and seasonal changes in activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 83: 7751–7754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Einset JW (1986d) Cytokinin consumption by micropropagated shoots. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 36: 635–640Google Scholar
  11. Einset JW (1987a) How development’s clock guides evolution. Arnoldia 47: 20–25Google Scholar
  12. Einset JW (1987b) Expanding the horizons of woody plant micropropagation. Am Nurseryman 166: 187–194Google Scholar
  13. Einset JW, Alexander JH Jr (1984) Multiplication of Syringa varieties and species in tissue cultures. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 34: 628–636Google Scholar
  14. Einset JW, Silverstone A (1987) Hydroxylation of N6-(A2-isopentenyl)adenine to zeatin; relative activities of organ systems from Actinidia arguta. Plant Physiol 84: 208–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein E (1972) Mineral nutrition of plants: principles and perspectives. John Wiley, New York Feldman LJ (1979) Cytokinin biosynthesis in roots of corn. Planta 145: 315–321Google Scholar
  16. Gould SJ (1977) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Belknap, Harvard Press, Cambridge Kulaeva ON (1962) The effect of roots on leaf metabolism in relation to the action of kinetin on leaves. Sov Plant Physiol 9: 182–189Google Scholar
  17. Kyte L (1983) Plants from test tubes: an introduction to micropropagation. Timber, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  18. Letham DS, Palni LMS (1983) The biosynthesis and metabolism of cytokinins. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 34:163–197 Google Scholar
  19. Linsmaier EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18: 100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lloyd G, McCown BH (1980) Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30: 421–427Google Scholar
  21. Loomis RS, Torrey JG (1964) Chemical control of vascular cambium initiation in isolated radish roots. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 52: 3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller CO, Skoog F, Okumura FS, Von Saltza MH, Strong FM (1956) Isolation, structure and synthesis of kinetin, a substance promoting cell division. J Am Chem Soc 78: 1375–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morris RO (1986) Genes specifying auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis in phytopathogens. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 37: 509–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murashige T (1974) Plant propagation through tissue cultures. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 25: 135–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nitsch JP (1971) Perennation through seeds and other structures: fruit development. In: Steward FC (ed) Plant physiology, a treatise. Academic Press, New York, pp 413–501Google Scholar
  27. Richmond AE, Lang A (1957) Effect of kinetin on protein content and survival of detached Xanthium leaves. Science 125: 650–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silverstone A (1987) Analysis of N6-(A2-isopentenyl)adenine hydroxylase in Actinidia through precursor and analog feeding experiments. Thesis, Bachelor of Arts with Honors (Biology), Harvard College, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Skoog F, Miller CO (1957) Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp Soc Exp Biol 11: 118–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Skoog F, Tsui C (1948) Chemical control of growth and bud formation in tobacco stem segments and callus cultured in vitro. Am J Bot 35: 782–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stebbins GL (1974) Flowering plants: evolution above the species level. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Thimann KV, Skoog F (1934) On the inhibition of bud development and other functions of growth substance in Viciafaba. Proc R Soc, Ser B 114: 317–339Google Scholar
  33. Torrey JG (1976) Root hormones and plant growth. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 27: 435–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Torrey JG (1985) The development of plant biotechnology. Am Sci 73: 354–363Google Scholar
  35. Wareing PF, Horgan R, Henson IE, Davis W (1977) Cytokinin relations in the whole plant. In: Pilet P (ed) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Plant Growth Substances. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 147–153Google Scholar
  36. Zimmerman RH, Griesbach RJ, Hammerschlag FA, Lawson RH (eds) (1986) Tissue culture as a plant production system for horticultural crops. Martinus Nijhoff, DordrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Einset
    • 1
  1. 1.EniChem AmericasMonmouth JunctionUSA

Personalised recommendations